How To Become An Assassin

HOW TO BECOME AN ASSASSIN

By

-The Propagation

"Knowledge is no longer power, Knowledge is survival" -The Propagation 1999 CONTENTS

Introduction
Psychology
Multiple ID's and personalities
Concealment
Hand to hand combat
Basic martial arts
Commando Fighting Techniques
Gun use
Special ammo
Basic weapons skills
Sentry removal
Attacking from ambush
Capture in passing
Lying methodology
Lie detector tests
The art of escaping
Explosives technics
Poisons
Communications
Inteligence gathering
Phone taps
Survival kits
Movement
Tracking
Advancing towards the enemy
Navigation
Reading the signs
Hot wiring
Slight of hand
Security systems
Lock picking
Hiding youself
Carding
Tips
Physical training regime


APPENDIX I: Chemical equivelency lists
APPENDIX II: Closing statement
APPENDIX III: Thanx and dedications
APPENDIX IV: Apoligies
APPENDIX V:About the author
APPENDIX VI:Further research
References
Disclaimer

INTRODUCTION

This file is being produced to help the members of the underground in their search for knowledge and an equal world of eqaul opportunities. The material in this manual is to help those previosly stated move without being noticed, escape capture, and many other aspects that will aid in their work. This manual is by no means able to replace proper teaching. Joining a martial arts club is a very good way to produce the many skills needed in successful hand to hand combat. I, personally, suggest trying jujitsu, aikido and other close combat martial arts. To become digilent in the coming methods, constant practice is neccessary. It is not enough to simply read over the text as there is no better way to learn than to get out there and practice it. Practice should be carried out whenever possible. If you're out with friends, practice dissapearing from infornt of them. It is possible.

To become an assassin, you must be a hunter. You must know the patterns and routines of your prey so that you may strike when they are most vunerable. To be an assassin, you must learn the way of the wizard, so you may stop the world and see with the eyes of God. The assassin must live in the shadows, have no true identity and exist in the common world on a deeper level. It is the assassin of great power who can control their enviroment, become one with their surroundings and remain unseen in full view of the enemy.

PSYCHOLOGY

Using a psychological approach, the assassin can perfom more terrorising results in the intended victim. It is true to say that to live in fear is to be more terrorising than to die. One way of doing this is to leave subtle threats. These should be placed in such a place that the victim will see them and also they must be in a position where they will have the greatest effect. For example, In the still of the night, gain access to the victims residence and smear a subtle phrase across the wall at the end of the bed. This will not only cause the victim to notice it as they wake up, but they will then also have the knowledge that you can get to them easily without them even noticing, therefore, they will be living in constant fear. However, after a time this fear will wear off as the victim starts to think that it was just a threat and nothing will come of it. So, in order to prevent this from happening, the assassin must constantly reinforce the messages and after a while carryout a small fear inducing act. For example, a third message could be to inform them that there MAY be something in their car. A while later, after they would have check the car out, position a small explosive charge under, say, the seat being wired up to the ignition. For best fear inducing effects, place a beeping device in the circuit with a delay before the charge. This will catch the victim off guard as they think that, after checking the car out, the threat had no base. But on hearing the beeping device they will fear that there was truth behind it and prepare for the enivitable. The assassin should place a small note near the charge, not to close to be damaged, that reads something like - "Next time I'll blow your legs off". This needs to be easily readable when the charge is inspected by the authorities.

Another way to create fear in the subject is, by intelligence gathering, send a subtle note that plays on the safety of a loved one. This works best when the victims loved one is planning on going someplace and not informing the subject. For example, a son or daughter going to a party or gathering and informing the victim that they are infact going to a friends house. When the subject rings to ease their mind, the loved one will not actually be at that place and the victim will come to fear for the safety of this loved one.

If the fear inducing technique is sufficient the subject may have a loss of will to live as they are constantly living in terror. Thus, the assassin will generate the desired effect without actually having direct responsibility for the subjects death.

Alternatively, fear can be induce by use for charms, curses and jinxes. Firstly, you must let the subject think that you are capable of cursing them. This can be done by staging an event, or giving them an account of a previous incident and telling them that you played a part in it. This will then make them believe that you can achieve what you say. Next you need to provide a basis for your curse or jinx. This can be in the form of a small icon or a 'special powder' that can be made from calk dust, flour, etc. After this you must convince your subject that the icon or 'special powder' is actually cursed. This can be done by giving them false accounts of previous owners lives or acient manuscripts fortelling the fate of those subjected to the icon,etc. If you then subject the victim to the icon, powder or whatever, the subject will do the rest themselves. This is because they now believe in what you have subjected them to. Their day may just continue as normal, but because they believe they are under a cures or jinx, they will only remember the bad parts of their day, and as each day passes, the effects will become stronger. If an extremly bad thing happens, like a car crash, knifing, then all the better. As this will add to your reputation and will cause those who had doubts about your ability before to fear you and, therefore, increasing their suggestability for future purposes.

Produce doubt in other peoples minds. This will lead to your winning. eg. if someone has an item you need - make them believe you have the 'real' item and the one they have is useless (ie. disk). As soon as they begin to doubt the authenticy of that which they have you will be able to finish them off, and retrieve the 'disk' when they discard it.

MULTIPLE ID'S AND PERSONALITIES

The assassin must be able to transfrom themselves into many different characters, therefore, existing without a true identity. To begin in a new form of identity, the assassin must first aquire a fake identity card. This can be done by:

The first thing is to find out who exactly you'll become. The most secure way is to use someone's ID who doesn't use it themselves. The people who fit this the best are the deceased. Now you must go to the library and look through old death notices. You have to find someone who was born about the same time as you were. Also, it is best to choose someone that has the same first name as you, at least. This is so that you will react naturally if you are called. It is also wise to get the same first letter of the deceased persons to match your own. This is so that if you have to sign for anything then your signiture will flow naturally. You should go back as far as you can for the death because most states now cross index deaths to births so people can't do this in the future. Go down to the library and look up all the death notices you can, if it's on microfilm so much the better. You might have to go through months of death notices though, but the results are well worth it. You gotta get someone who died locally in most instances: the death certificate is filed only in the county of death. Now you must go down to the county courthouse in the county where they died and get the death certificate, this may cost you a small amount. Look at this paper, it could be your the only way to suddenly dissapear when the right time comes.

Now check the place of birth on the death certificate, if it's in the same place that you are then you are ready to go. If not, you can mail away for one from that county but it might take a while, the librarian at the desk has listings of where to write for this stuff and exactly how much it costs. Get the Birth cirtificate, its worth the extra money to get it certified because thats the only way some people will accept it for ID. When your aquiring these documents the forms ask for the reason you want it, put in the word "Geneology". If the Death certificate looks good, wait a day or so before getting the certified birth certificate in case they recognize someone wanting it for a deceased person.

After this, access your PC and wire it up to the printer and print out some mailing labels addressed to you at some false address. Take the time to check that this address is real. Hotels that rent by the month or large apartment buildings are good, be sure to get the right zip code for the area. These are things that the authorities might notice that will trip you up. Take some junk mail and place your new lables on them. Now take them along with the birth certificate down to the library. Get a new library card. If they ask you if you had one before say that you really aren't sure because your family moved around alot when you were a kid. Most libraries will allow you to use letters as a form of ID when you get your card. If they want more tell them that you have mislaid your wallet Your should get your card straight away or you may have to wait a short while. Most libraries ask for two forms of ID, one can be your new Birth Certificate, and they should allow letters addressed to you as a second form. Now you got a start, it isn't perfect yet, so let's continue. You should have two forms of ID now. Throw away the old letters, or better yet stuff them inside the wallet you intend to use with this stuff. Go to the county courthouse and show them the new ID and get a state ID card. Now you will have a picture ID. This will take about two weeks.

You can also apply for a 'new' national insurance card claiming that you had lost your original. In the uk you must be over 16 years of age to recieve a NI card.

You should also get on your PC type out some intials for like a sport or university for example, add some colour and skew it diagnoly. Then, using this as the background for your 'picture', put add on the details as below:

(Title of club, college etc) ___________ | | Surname:.............................. | Picture | Forenames:.......................... | | Address:............................... | | ............................................... | | D.O.B:.................................... |__________ | Number:................................

You can also add on the instructors signiture if its a club and an expiration date. Print this out on some thin card and get it laminated.

You can now go and get a new bank account and apply for a new passport. When applying for the new passport you must intercept the mail for the address that is on the id. Alternatively you can organise a drop of point using an abandoned building saying that you have just moved.

When you send away photographs that will be put into new id's such as the passport. Use a different look. Dye your hair and cover up or give yourself distinguishing features. Be sure to replace or cover them back up when you are using the id's. Make a number of false identities so that you may never need to use your own identity.

CONCEALMENT People are seen for a number of reasons, remembering these vital words that will help you to stay covered from the enemy at all times;

SHAPE- Lose your shape, break up the bodies outline and blend in with the surroundings

SHINE- Mask any shiny or reflective objects on your person, including the face.

SHADOW- Move behind lights when possible. If not move in the shadows, the human shadow is easily distinguished.

SILHOUETTE- The human shape is familiar and stands out. Keep low from sky lines.

SURFACE- Blend in with the surroundings.

SPACING- When in a group spread out randomly. Nature is not orderly.

MOVEMENT- Things are seen especially when they move. Avoid unnecessary movement

Inpo, the art of hiding, is an integral part of the Ninjitsu system. It simply means that one must take advantage of every possible object, natural as well as man made, to conceal oneself. Inpo gave rise to the legends that the ancient ninja could vanish at will..

Foremost among the precepts of inpo is the admonition to avoid unnecessary movement. Following are the five preferred inpo methods:

EARTH METHOD

The best example of this technique is supplied by Uzura gakure no-jitsu, which suggests hiding like a quail in small gaps between two larger objects. The primary consideration here is that one must be able to completely fill the space between the objects. In this way, one may escape detection, since an observer will scan past these as he walks. Of note also is the technique of hiding under overhanging brush or grass. Stay low to observe and look around the cover.

AIR METHOD

This refers to hiding like a racoon. It means that one should climb a tree or other high place and press oneself against the object so that one seems to be a part of it. The infamous jewel thieves, Alan Kuhn and Jack Murphy- who stole the Star of India from a New York museum- made frequent use of this tactic. They believed, and rightly so, that people seldom look up.

WATER METHOD

This means to imitate the actions of the fox by concealing oneself in water. Not only does this aid in erasing one's trail, but also allows only poor footing for the pursuing enemy. This method is also extremely useful when one can spring on an enemy out of the water for the purpose of drowning him.

FIRE METHOD

This is perhaps the most difficult of the inpo arts. It refers to the erasing of sound and shadow. Always move behind a light source to avoid casting a shadow or silhouette which might betray you. Learn to move silently. Only practice in the nine steps can develop this skill.

WOOD METHOD

Pu Neng Mu is the term used to mean "invisibility in plain sight". When no cover is at hand one must hide behind nothing. This is accomplished by distorting the silhouette. It is possible to form the body into many shapes by means of yogic exercises. In the old days of ninjitsu, one excellent tactic involved replacing a scare crow and standing in the center of a ploughed field. By kneeling and wrapping the arms around the knees, one assumes a position like a stone or bush.

Numerous other methods exist for concealing one's presence from the enemy, such as disguises, mingling with crowds, false identities, and so on. These alternatives lie in the realm of strategically, rather than tactical considerations.

Conceal items within common items when ever possible. ie. poison filled syringe in a pen.

POSITIONS OF CONCEALMENT

There are six basic positions which may be used to conceal your presence:

1. ABOVE- A position above the enemy is the first of these, as mentioned people rarely look up. One may use this propensity to his advantage. Roof tops are a good place of concealment as by laying flat observations can be made, However, avoid silhouetting.

2. BELOW- One can also hide below the enemy when hiding or observing. Look for crawl spaces, air ducts or cellars. Remember to replace any grates or trap doors that may have been in your way. Beware of being trapped, NEVER move into a space with only one exit.

3. BESIDE- Beside cover is a third method which may be used. Regardless of the object, keep as low as possible at all times. Use shadows when ever possible- conceal yourself within it and assume the same shape.

4. BEHIND- Hiding behind cover is another technique. In selecting this approach, bear in mind that you must assume the same shape as the object. Shrubs, hedges, crates, stacked material, and so on, may be used for this purpose.

5. INSIDE- Hiding inside is another method of concealment. The trick is to choose places where a person is not expected to fit. One must possess great flexibility and the ability to remain uttery still. Remember to beware of becoming trapped.

6. INFRONT- Infront of cover is the boldest and most difficult of all these concealment methods. To accomplish this, one must select the object of concealment, position himself directly before it, and assume its shape. Lower the torso and look directly ahead without fixing the eyes on any one point. Relax the body.

In all of these concealment methods, the primary consideration is no movement. It is of utmost importance in hiding in plain view. This technique was a favourite of the ancient ninja, who would position themselves so, along a path travelled by the enemy, stepping forward to attack him as he passed. DO NOT look directly at the enemy as this will cause him to sense your presence.

HAND TO HAND COMBAT

METHODS OF APPLICATION

When engaged in hand-to-hand combat, your life is always at stake. There is only one purpose in combat, and that is to kill your enemy. Never face an enemy with the idea of knocking him out. The chances are extremely good that he will kill YOU instead. When a weapon is not available, one must resort to the full use of his natural weapons. In a combat situation, do not always aim for the head area. there are many body points that can be damaged effectivley including fatal shots.

The natural weapons are:

1. The knife edge of your hands.

2. Fingers folded at the second joint or knuckle.

3. The protruding knuckle of your second finger.

4. The heel of your hand.

5. Your boot

6. Elbows

7. Knees

8. and Teeth.

Attacking is a primary factor. A fight was never won by defensive action. Attack with all of your strength.

At any point or any situation, some vulnerable point on your enemies body will be open for attack. Do this while screaming as screaming has two purposes.

1. To frighten and confuse your enemy.

2. To allow you to take a deep breath which, in turn, will put more oxygen in your blood stream. Your balance and balance of your enemy are two inportant factors; since, if you succeed in making your enemy lose his balance, the chances are nine to one that you can kill him in your next move. The best over-all stance is where your feet are spread about shoulders width apart, with your right foot about a foot ahead of the left. Both arms should be bent at the elbows parallel to each other. Stand on the balls of your feet and bend your waist slightly. Kinda of like a boxer's crouch. Employing a sudden movement or a scream or yell can throw your enemy off-balance. There are many vulnerable points of the body. We will cover them now:

Weaknesses of the human anatomy

The following text concentrates on the major damage points of the head and neck region.

The proceeding pages will deal with 32 of the pressure points of the body. Of course, there are quite a few more, but these are the basics. All of the points are classified into 2 catagories :

Numerical

I - brain/skull
II - sense organs
III- life support, cardiorespiratory, major organs & tracts
IV - muscular functions & nerves
V - mechanical functions, skeletal, cartilage's & joints


Alphabetical

A-immobility from pain
B-immobility from structural or organic damage
C-Unconsciousness from nerve or organic damage
D-death from physiological damage

The ventral transverse plane consists of the face, the front, top, & sides of the head, the neck, & the upper torso, including the collarbone. There are 15 pressure points in this area as follows:

1. Coronal Suture I-C
2. Trigeminal Nerve & Frontal Bone I-D
3. Temple & Fossa Temporalis I-D
4. Eyes II-B
5. Ears II-B
6. Mastoid II-A
7. Septal Cartilage II-A or II-D
8. Anterior Nasal Spine I-A
9. Temporomandibular Joint V-A
10. Tip Of Mandible I-C
11. Sternocleidomastoid Region III-D
12. Anterior Neck Region III-D
13. Brachial Plexus & Trapezius Muscle IV-C
14. Suprasternal Notch III-D
15. Clavicle V-B
16. Heart III-D
17. Kidneys III-B
18. Shoulder Socket V-B
19. Elbow V-B
20. Carpals, Metacarpals and Phalanges V-B
21. Patella V-B
22. Tarsals and Metatarsals V-B
23. Thoracic Cage V-D
24. Floating Ribs V-B/D
25. Vertebral Column V-B
26. Diaphragm III-C/D
27. Testes III-A/C
28. Coccyx III-A
29. Armpit IV-A
30. Posterior Cutaneous IV-A
31. Liver III-D
32. Spleen III-D
1: This region lays on top of the head, more towards the forehead. It is also known as the soft spot on babies. It is the space between the skull bones that is covered with a membrane that close up usually by 18 months, but the coronal structure is still weaker than the rest of the skull. Directly beneath this is the sensory portion of the brain & under that the optic cavity. A downward strike of about 45 degrees depending on the force could cause concussion, temporary blindness, unconsciousness, brain haemorrhage, even death (very powerful blow).

2: This region is located just below the centermost point of the forehead The nerve is on the outside of the skull thus when the bone is struck it will trap the nerve. This could result in jarring the cerebral hemispheres, concussion, unconsciousness, impaired vision, & paralysis. If and only if maximum impact is applied, death could result from brain haemorrhage.

3: I'm sure we all know where the temple is but for those of you that don't know it is located on a horizontal plane across from the top of the ear. It is the recessed part on each side of the head. It is actually the bone tip of the sphenoid. The trigeminal nerve runs through the temple. This nerve controls several facial functions. Also passing through is the middle meningeal artery which is the largest branch supplying dura matter. A direct hit could break the tip off the sphenoid causing it to enter the brain. The meningeal could burst. Contact to the trigeminal could result in loss of control of facial functions. Compression of the brain, hemorrhage, concussion, shock, & death are likely results of striking the temple with a horizontal blow directed towards the opposite temple.

4: The eyes are located...uh I think you know. The eyes are very sensitive even to the slightest touch. They are held in by fascia bulbi (a soft membrane) and eye muscles. This makes them easy to pop out. They are also very soft, and if a blow reached the vitreous body (center of eye) the eyeball would collapse. Other than causing temporary or permanent loss of sight a deep thrust could puncture the brain causing death.

5: These are located on each side of the head. Air is easily trapped in the external acoustic meatus (the tunnel from the outer ear to the inner ear) and forced into the eardrum causing it to bust. This in turn ruptures the hammer or malleus within the middle ear. Damages would cause severe pain, loss of hearing, bleeding from the mouth and ear, and bleeding into the throat via the internal auditory tube. Also, the inner ear is the center of equilibrium (balance) for the cerebellum. a forceful strike could leave the victim sprawled on the ground with no balance! The blow should be delivered horizontally driving into the ear.

6: The mastoid is located directly behind the earlobe. It is the recessed area where the skull meets the neck. It is filled with air pockets which are used to communicate with the middle ear. A thrust should not be used; rather apply pressure with a nuckle or thumbnail in an upward direction. Prolonged pressure could cause damage to the auditory system.

7: Known more commonly as the nose the septal cartilage is the hard substance that makes up the nose. Two strikes are used here for different measures

II-A : a horizontal strike causing breakage of the septal cartilage and nasal bone which ruptures the angular vein producing a lot of blood along with great pain, however, not enough to stop some attackers II-D : an upward 45 degree strike forcing the septal cartilage through the internal nasal cavity and crista galli (a small bone formation between the nasal cavity & the brain) into the brain. Death would be instantaneous because of compression of the brain.

8: This is located beneath the nose and above the lips. It is the area between the 2 lines running from the nose to upper lip. Many of the facial nerves run through this area. A direct hit would cause the sensory fibers to relay the shock to the pons, causing dizziness. A hit would also cause damage to the maxilla bone which holds the gums & teeth. This could cause extensive bleeding posibly scaring the victim about the blood loss. A straight blow in needed to achieve this aiming towards the back of the head.

9: This is the joint that holds the jaw bone in place. It connects with the skull in front of the ear. The joint is really made up of 2 separate joints, thus dislocation can be unilateral or bilateral. With a 45 degree downward strike (preferably with the mouth open) will dislocate the mandible (jaw bone). An easier way to break the bone is to strike the joint itself or anywhere on the jaw bone really while the head is turned to one side or the other. This reduces the absorbtion of the blow by the neck. This method requires the least amount of force.

10: The madible is the jaw bone and of course the tip is located on the very end of the chin. Boxers use this point for a quick K.O. Hitting this area sends a shock snesor to the cerebellum causing unconsciousness. Hit this point with an upward blow.

11: This is the area at the frontal sides of the neck. The sternocleidomastoid muscles run from behind the ear down to the clavicle bones. Beneath these muscles lie the jugular vein and cartoid artery which supply blood to the heart & brain. This are is very sensitive. Try poking yourself there. A medium strike results in dizziness. A more forceful blow could blister, swell, collapse or or burst 1 or both of the blood lines. This could easily cause death because of lack of oxygen to the heart or brain. A strike should be done on an upsloping plane at 45 degrees on either side of the chin in the neck area.

12: Referred to as the windpipe or throat; is located in the center portion of the neck. This is a tubular passage running from the mouth to the stomach & lungs. When a straight on blow is delivered the thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple(the lump in your throat)) and the hyaline cartilage (hold the windpipe in a cylinder shape) are pushed through the larynx and/or trachea resulting in blood drowning or partial or complete obstruction of the vital air passages. The cartilages act as cutting devices.

13: The muscle is the one that runs from the base of the neck to the shoulder. It raises up on most people. The brachial plexus is a nerve center which supplies info about the shoulder & arm down to the wrist. It runs through the trapezius. Striking the trapezius (from either front or back) with a downward 45 degree motion could paralyze the arm & shoulder temporarily. With a maximun blow unconsciousness & paralysis could be attained.

14: This lies between the collarbones; it connects them. A blow here could dislodge the collarbones from the sternum, collapsing the shoulders. But there are better targets behind the sternum. Such as the aorta, the superior vena cava (major blood lines to the brain), and the trachea all these pass directly behind the sternum. A forceful blow would follow these reactions : dislodge both clavicles from the sternum, the sternum would split, the 2 clavicles & sternum would be forced against or puncture the aorta and vena cava, the cartilages & bones would then be forced against or puncture the trachea. The strike should be delivered at a downward 45 degree angle. The suprasternal notch is a MAJOR death target.

15: This is the bone on each side of the body that runs from the shoulder to the center of the chest. It supports the shoulder so breaking a clavicle (collarbone) would result in the collapse of the shoulder. It is possible for the broken bone to puncture a lung or possibly the heart or one of the things mentioned in #14. A simple break would immobilize the victim due to structural damage & pain. An inward & down motion should be used when attacking also at 45 degrees.

16. This is the cardiac muscle that pumps the blood throughtout the body. It is hidden behind the sternam, (the breast plate in the middle of the chest). A forceful strike would cause the heart to skip beats and collapse, ceasing the movement of oxygen around the body resulting in death.

17. The kidneys are located in the soft area of the back, at the bottom of the rib cage. The front of the kidneys is protected by the floating ribs, however, the back of the kidneys are exposed and vunerable. There is one on each side of the vertebral column. A firm strike to this area generates alot of pain and will cause structural damage. Internal bleeding may result causing death.

18. This is the point at which the top of the humurus and the scaptula meet in a ball and socket joint. To disslocate the shoulder joint, one must place a foot or knee under the arm and sharply pull and twist the arm. This will create alot of pain.

19. The elbow, which is a hinge joint, where the base of the humurus and the forearm meet. This joint works only one way. Therefore, by holding the back of this joint and applying pressure by pulling the forearm in the opposite direction to which the subject is facing it can be broken quite readily. This will cause pain and immobility due to structural damage.

20. The carpals, metacarpals and phalanges are the bones which make up the hand and fingers. They are attatched by means of a hinge joint and can be easiely broken in much the same way as the elbow. This technique is effective against holds and stranglers where the fingers can readily be bent backwards. this will cause structural damage and generate pain.

21. The Petalla, often known as the knee cap, is a small round piece of bone which floats freely in the hinge joint of the femur and the tibia. By using a downward strike the petella can easiely become disslodged causeing pain and immobility.

22. The tarsals and metatarsals are the bones which make up the foot. They, like the carpals and metacarpals, work on the basis of hinge joints. However, it is extremly difficult to get the chance to, let alone bend these back. A prefered method is to execute an extremely powerful downward strike such as a stamp onto the bones causing them to break. the subject will then fall to the floor as there is no base on which the body weight can be placed.

23. The thoracic cage, often known as the rib cage, is the protective box in which holds the vital organs. The rib cage consists of a number of long bones that start at the spinal column and proceed around the body connecting at the sternam in the centre of the chest. A forceful strike or stamp to the frontal area can cause the thoracic cage to collapse resulting in the feeling of a tight chest, extreme pain and immobility. In some cases the broken bones may piece the heart or lungs resulting in death.

24. The floating ribs also begin at the spinal column and extend around the body. However, they do not join at the front. They are located below the thoracic cage and can be much more readily brocken than those in the thoracic cage. In some instances the brackage of these bones may pierce the liver or spleen resulting in the subject rapidly bleeding to death.

25. The vertabral coloumn or spinal column, runs down the centre of the back from the base of the skull to the anus. It is made up of a large number of small disc shaped bones connected together. The spinal column holds the spinal cord within it, this is a thick collection of nerves that controls the middle and lower body. A strong strike to this column would break the vertabrae and in some cases snap the spinal cord resulting in full or partial paralysis.

26. The diaphragm is a thick membrane located at the base of the sternam that strecthes from the front to the back and from left to right. THe diaphragm is the membrane that, by contracting and relaxing, changes the volume in the lungs causing intake and expiration of oxygen. A rising strike into this area would temporarily paralyse this membrane and knock out all of the air out of the lungs. Thus, damage to this organ would result in a inability to breath resulting in unconsciousness and maybe death.

27. The testes are located between the legs at the base of the body on a male. Even a slight strike to this area would cause extreme pain , immobility and maybe unconsciousness.

28. The coccyx is a small collection of bones located at the base of the spinal column at the anal opening. A forceful strike to this area would cause extreme pain and immobility.

29. The armpit is a concave area of tissue that is located under the arm where the upper arm and main body join. Within the armpit is a large gathering of nerves. Although this area is not often accessable, a strike to the armpit would cause intense pain and immobility.

30. The posterior cutaneous is a large collection of nerve cells found at the back of the upper leg. A pinching technique to this area would cause sharp pain and a sudden relfex action to move.

31. The liver is located on the right side of the body extending across to a point on the left. The top of the liver is protected by the ribs on both sides. However the bootom of the liver, found on the right side is unprotected. The liver is saturated with blood and any damage to this organ would result in a rapid loss of blood due to internal bleeding. Resulting in death.

32. The spleen is similar to the liver in that it too is saturated with blood. However, the spleen is a smaller organ and is found on the left side. It is completely protected by the ribs. Damage to this organ would also produce rapid blood loss due to internal bleeding. Resulting in death.

BASIC MARTIAL ARTS

It is always an advantage for the assassin to have at least a basic knowledge of martial atrs. The following text by no means attempts to replace proffesional teachings. It is suggested that the training assassin enroles in one or more martial arts clubs. Preferences include, jujitsu, aikido, other close quarters fighting styles and maybe one or two distance styles such as taekwondo which involves kicking and jumping techniques. The following text will attempt to portray some of the practical aspects of martial arts.

The Stance

The stance should be comfortable to the assassin. The stance should be about one shoulders width and one and a half shoulders long. The knees should be bent always, or they provided an easy target to become broken. The lead hand or front hand, should be about brought up to apx. 20 centermeters from the shoulder to the thumb. The rear hand should be brought up to next to the cheek and apx. 2 fist widths away from it. Both elbows should be brought in to protect the bidy. The body should be turn to about 45 degrees to provide a smaller target for the enemy. Always keep the arms up to protect the face.

Making A Fist: Firstly, the assassin must know how to make a proper first so as not to injure themselvs whilst in a confrontation.

*Fully open out the hand. *Curl the fingers down so they touch the pad of flesh running along the top of the palm; *Fold the fingers forward from the knuckles; *Lock the fist closed by folding your thumb across the index and middle fingers.

The thumb must never be closed within the hand as this will cause it to dislocate at the point of impact.

Strike the target with the index and middle finger knuckles only, holding the fist in such a way that the wrist does'nt flex painfully on impact.

Strikes

The Jab

Target areas, #'s: 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 26

The jab is a short punch delievered with the lead hand. The jab can be used as a distracting punch rapidly being followed up by a reverse punch, hook or uppercut.

*Begin in a comfortable stance allowing for the ability to move freely, always keep the knees bent.

*Extend the lead hand out and twist the hips into the punch to gain full distance.

*The chin should be kept tucked into the body so that a counter attack will not connect and break it.

*As the lead hand reaches the target, twist the hand so into the target, so that the palm is facing downwards.

*Sharply retract the arm.

Reverse Punch

Target areas, #'s: 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 26

This punch comes from the rear hand and is alot more powerful than the jab.

*Begin in the fighting stance

*Bring the lead hand in slightly to the face to protect it;

*Step forward slightly with the lead foot.

*Punch out with your rear hand twisting your hips into the move by pivoting on the ball of the rear foot.

*As the punch reaches the target, twist the hand into it as before.

Back Fist

Target areas, #'s: 3, 5, 6, 7, 9

The back fist strike can be a follow up from a hook or can be used on its own, and can be used from either hand. A developed back fist can cause fatal results. *Start in the fighting position
*Bring the striking fist up to the opposite ear, palm facing inwards.
*Extend the arm striking with the back of the hand on the knuckles.
*Pull back the spent arm.

The Hook

Target areas,#'s: 3, 5, 9, 17, 23, 24, 29

This punch is used to reach targets that the previous punches can not. It is also used as a counter attack to an incomming punch. Bring the lead hand up to the ear to protect the head and lean to the outside of the punch, ducking under it. Then execute the hook punch. It can be used form both the front and rear hands. The latter of the two will be discussed.

*Start in the fighting stance
*Slightly drop the rear hand and bring it back a little.
*As you bring it forwards, push the elbow out so that the forearm is parallel to the floor.
*Twist the hips and let the hand follow, bringing power into the punch. Pivoting on the ball of the rear foot.

The Uppercut

Target areas,#'s: 7, 8, 10, 26, 29

The uppercut is used to get up under the enemy's defense and into the body region. It can also be performed from both front and rear. The latter will be discussed.

*Begin in the fighting stance
*Drop your body weight slightly by bending your knees. You should also drop the rear shoulder bringing the palm to face your body.
*Push up with your legs and simultaneously push the rear hand up vertically and out towards the target. Be sure to twist the hips into the punch and pivot on the ball of the rear foot.
*The rear shoulder should have the effect of creating a small circular movement.

The Palm Heel Strike

Target areas,#'s: 2, 7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 18, 23, 24, 26

The palm heel strike uses the base of the hands palm to perform a powerful strike, usually upwards forcing a particular section of the target further on.

*Begin in the fighting position
*Bring the lead hand up to the face to protect it.
*Step forward slightly with the lead foot.
*Turn the rear hand so that the palm faces away from your body
*Extend the fingers of the rear hand.
*Push the heel straight forwards to strike the target. Twist the hips as you do this to add power and speed.
*Quickly retrieve the hand and bring it back to the guard position.
*Ensure that you strike with the heel of the hand and keep the thumb tucked back.

Ridge Hand Strike

Target areas,#'s: 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 15, 24, 27, 29

This technique can be performed from either the lead or rear hand and can deliever a powerful, painful and immobilsing strike.

*Begin in the fighting stance.
*Extend the figures of the hand to be used and bring the thumb in across the palm, providing a 'knife' edge.
*Perfrom a hook like manouver, striking with the index finger edge of the hand. Be sure to keep the thumb tucked well in.

Elbow Strike

Target areas, #'s; 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 23, 24

This strike is effective in close combat, and can be delievered with either arm. It can provide a powerful immobilizing attack to the enemy.

*Begin in the fighting position
*Keep the hand near to the shoulder and perform a hook manouver.
*Strike with the point of the elbow and twist the body into the attack.

Rising Elbow Strike

Target areas, #'s: 6, 7, 8, 10

This can be used in place of an upper cut in close combat, and can also be delievered from either arm. It can produce disasterous effects including death.

*Begin in the fighting position
*Bring the fist up the shoulder
*Bend the knees and as the legs are straigthened-
*Push the point of the elbow striaght up and slightly out to meet the target.
*Ensure a good body twist for full damage

Basic Kicking Techniques

The Front Kick

Target areas,#'s; 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 32

This is the first technique taught to the begginer in most martial arts. It is often used to stop a lunging attack and, once learnt correctly, can have devestating effects. All kicking techniques can be performed from both legs. The most powerful of the two is the rear leg, therefore, this is the one which shall be described in all cases here after.

*Begin in the fighting position
*Lift the rear knee up close to the chest
*Keeping the foot on the same horizontal path straighten the leg out leaning back and pushing your hips into the kick.
*Hit the target with the ball of the foot.
*Bring the knee back in by the chest before placing it back down, This is so that another kick can be executed quickly and with power if needed.

The Side Kick

Target areas,#'s: 16, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 31, 32

This is the most powerful of kicks. It can collapse a thoracic cage and is useful for stopping lunging attacks. This technique can become devestatingly powerful by stepping the rear leg behind the front leg then executing the side kick from the front leg.

*Start in the fighting stance
*Bring the rear leg up to the chest
*Pivot on the base foot so that the toes point away from you to the rear. The leg should naturally turn horizontal.
*Push the foot out to create an imaginary line fom the shoulder down the hip and to the heel.
*Strike the target area with the outside edge of the foot.
*As before, pull the leg back to the chest before placing it down.

The Roundhouse Kick or Turning Kick

Target areas,#'s: 17, 21, 23, 24, and legs

This kick can be performed with tremendous speed and power, breaking ribs, legs and arms if correctly applied. Proffessional martial artists can knock someone out and sometimes kill them with a turning kick to the head.

*Begin in the fighting stance
*Imagine/or place a chair next to your front foot and infront of your rear foot. Lift the rear knee high and bring it up and over the chair coming around pivoting on the ball of the base foot as before.
*Stop the knee before it goes past the imaginary line that runs through the body.
*At this point, allow the lower leg to continue keeping the knee where it is.
*After striking the target, keeping the knee still, bring the foot back so that the heel touches your bum. Then bring the knee back down coming back over the chair to the start position.

The Back Kick

Target areas,#'s: 23, 24, 26, 31, 32

The back kick can generate alot of power if performed correctly. It is not advisable unless you are already turning or have alot of time. This kick must be performed very fast so as to not be caught out.

*Start in the fighting stance.
*Bring the front foot across just passed the rear foot.
*Twist the whole body by pivoting on the balls of the feet. You should be in an opposite stance facing away from the enemy.
*Look over your, now front foot side, shoulder
*Lift the new front foot up
*Push the leg straight out behind you so that the knees nearly touch, leaning forward as you do so
*Strike the target with the heel of the foot.
*Bring the knee back up in front and, pivoting on the ball or heel of the base foot, resume the original stance facing the enemy.

Basic Blocks

The easiest way to block a punch is to move. It requires only a small movement of the head to avoid a punch. If the punch comes to the body then by simply twisting the hips and deflecting it with the ready positioned elbows or forearms will produce the desired effect. A block can be developed powerful enough to break the arm of a incoming punch.

Low Block

For: Kicks and attacks to the lower body.

*From the fighting stance;
*Twist the lead hand so that the palm is facing your body
*Push the forearm straight down stopping just passed the groin area.
*Instantly bring the blocking hand straight back up into the guard position.

High/Head Block

For: Punches and high downward attacks

*Start in the fighting position
*Bring the lead arm across the body so that your palm is are facing your ear.
*From there, push the forearm straight up twisting the hand as it reaches the attack so that the palm is facing away from you.
*Be sure that the block extends over the head by about one and half fist widths.
*Instantly bring the hand back into the guard position.

Elbow Block

For: Hooks and similar weapon attacks.

*Begin in the fighting position
*As the attack is seen, bring the arm closest to the attack up so that the fist is near the ear, and elbow pointing forward.
*Learn in towards the enemy and strike with a head butt, hook, punch, uppercut or similar strike.

Double Outer Forearm Block

For: Hooks, punches and similar weapon attacks.

*Start in the fighting position.
*Bring the rear gaurd forward in line with the lead hand.
*Twist the upper body 45 degrees into the attack.
*Slightly extend the forearms into the attack, moving them from the shoulders.

Full Body Block

For: Punches and kicks to the middle and high sections

*Begin in the fighting stance
*Perform a low block with the lead arm stopping at the groin area and twisting the shoulder into it.
*Simultaneously, bring the right hand across the front of the neck and extend the fingers out when the hand reaches the opposite side of the jaw.

COMMANDO FIGHTING TECHNIQUES

Chokes And Strangles

Chokes and strangles are often an effcetive way to maintain control or subdue an enemy. The main difference of the two is that the strangle cuts off blood supply to the brain and the choke cuts off the air supply. The strangle is the quicker of the two and is relatively painless in execution and on release does not normally permantly damage the enemy. The choke, however, can cause substatial damage to the throat and wind pipe and immediate recovery is not always certain.

Handclasp

1. Place the left palm facing upward on the enemy's left shoulder.
2. Take the right arm across and in front of the neck with the right hand on the left. Ensure that the inside cutting edge of the wrist is towards the throat.
3. Claps the hands together.
4. Pull the cutting edge of the right wrist into the throat in an inwards and upwards manner, using the body as a block.
5. With the legs wrapped around the enemy's body, work the right arm in front of the throat clasping the left hand. Pull the wrist tightly into the throat controlling the body with the legs. If he pulls his chin in, draw the head back with the left hand , grabbing the arm - drive the right arm into the throat, then quickly clasp the hands again.

The enemy will be fighting for his life, therefore, keep tight control, manipulate your arms into the appropriate positions.

Special Points: Essential to pull the enemy into the body for maximum effect, using the cutting edge of the wrist.

Sliding Scarf

1. Place the right hand round and in front of the enemy's throat.
2. Continue the movement round to the back of the neck, placing the thumb inside the clothing.
3. Take a firm hold of the clothing with the right hand, with the fingers outside and to the rear.
4. Bring the left arm round in front and underneath the right arm.
5. Grab the clothing with the thumb inside and fingers out.
6. Keeping the enemy's body pulled tightly back into your own pull across and to the right with the right arm and down and across to the left with the left arm.
7. With the legs wrapped around the enemy's body work both arms around the front of the neck.
8. Manipulate the right hand round the back of the neck grabbing the collar with the thumb inside, fingers out, simultaneously grabbing the cloth under the right arm with the left hand.
9. Apply pressure by pulling the right arm across and back to the right with the left arm pulling across and down to left. Keep the head well in.

Special Points: Essential that the right hand be placed as afr round the neck as possible in order to attain the maximum leverage.

Cross Scissors

1. Place the right hand inside the opponents clothing to the rear and right side of his neck, with the fingers inside and thumb out.
2. Take the left hand across and over the right and attack it in a similar manner on the left side.
3. Squeeze the neck tightly by pulling the hands back across in scissors action driving the elbows out to the side.
4. With the enemy facing - cross the hands and work to the sides and back of the neck grabbing the cohting, fingers inside and thumb out.
Apply pressure by pulling the elbows out to side. This attack is good when the enemy is laynig on their back.

Special Points: Essential that the hands are placed well to the rear of the neck for maximum leverage. Can also be accomplished with palms facing down or alternate one up, one down depending on circumstances.

Forearm Choke

1. Place the right hand thumb inside, fingers out, on the enemy's clothing to the right side of his neck.
2. Grab the front of the clothing with the left hand, fingers inside, thumb out. 3. Drive the outside cutting edge of the right arm into the side of the neck grabbing the clothing, thumb inside, fingers out.
Grab the clothing at the front with the left hand and apply pressure by driving the outside cutting edge of the right arm into the throat.
Effective against the floor or a wall where the opponent cannot learn back away from the direction of the force.

Special Points: Essential to keep the right elbow high and use the cutting edge of the wrist.

Wind Pipe Choke

1. Holding the opponent with the left hand make a vice with the right hand.
2. Grab the windpipe, fingers on the right side, thumb on the left.
3. Squeeze the wind pipe tightly trying to make a fist with the right hand.
4. Grab the enemy around the neck with the right arm spreading the legs wide to ensure a firm base.
Grab the windpipe with the left hand squeezing the fingers and thumb together to make a fist.
5. In addition to the windpipe choke - adopting the same position - the thumb of the left hand can be driven into the eye applying pressure inside and out.

Special Points: Esssential that the windpipe only is grabbed and not too much of the neck. Fingers should be together for maximum effect on the squeeze.

Nutcracker

1. Place the hands with the fingers pointing to the sides of the enemy's neck. 2. Grab the clothing at the sides of the neck with the fingers inside, thumbs out, and make a tight fist with each hand.
3. Drive the knuckles of each fist into the sides of the neck.
4. With the legs wrapped around the enemy's body grab the clothing at the side of the neck with the fingers inside, thumbs out.
5. Making a tight fist, drive the knuckles into the sides of the neck.

Special points: Essential that knuckles are strongly pressed into the veins and arteries of the neck for maximum effect. For maximum pressure ensure the cutting edge of the knuckles is pressed into the neck.

Arm And Wrist Locks

The are many arm and wrist locks which can be highly effective in controlling an enemy during a situation. However, most locks are enhanced by first shocking the enemy with another technique, such as a punch or kick.

Hair & Hammer Lock 1. Grab the enemy's right wrist from the rear with the right hand.
2. Move forward gripping the right elbow with the left hand.
3. Bend the arm behind the back hooking the lower arm in your left.
4. Grip the hair with the right hand
5. pull the haed hard to the rear.

Special Points: Essential to move forward when hooking enemy's arm in your left - this will help to bend the arm. Lift the enemy upwards to keep him off balance. This lock can also be used as defense by catching a straight hand strike on the outside of the wirst with the rear hand applying the lock. this method could be followed up with a japanese strangle hold (see sentry removal)

Chicken Wing Lock

1. Take hold of the enemy's right wrist with the right hand.
2. Slip the left thumb interlock with enemy.
3. Rotate the back of the left hand around the back of the enemy's hand.
4. Retaining the thumb hold, pull the wrist towards the body.
5. Pull the wrist towards the body with the right hand and slip the left palm under the back of his hand.
6. Take the enemy's elbow under the arm and apply upwards pressure.

Special Points: -

Wrist Lock And Throw

1. Grab the enemy's right arm with both thumbs to the back of the hand, fingers around the base of the palm applying wrist lock.
2. Twist the hand over to left to begin a large circular movement.
3. Continue to apply pressure to the wrist by moving the body round to the left, force the enemy to the ground with the wrist lock.

Special Points: After the throw, a follow up technique such as a hand strike could be applied.

Body Throws And Sweeps

Body throws are very effective during close quarter combat when an enemy presents themself open to the type of technique. Leg sweeps, on the other hand, can be effective from a longer range and are especially useful when moving in on the enemy.

Hip Throw Against Punch

1. Enemy attacks with a left puch to the body. Move forward to block the pucnh with a right downward block.
2. Block the punch as the right leg steps forward and through.
3. Take the right hand round the back of the enemy smothering and grabbing his right arm with your left.
4. Bring the left leg into the right and pull with the left hand getting the hip into and under the enemy's body.
5. Drive upwards with the legs and hip pulling the enemy over with both arms.
6. Drop the enemy down in front and raise the right arm to prepare for a counter.
7. Counter with a downward punch to the face.

Special Points: Ensure that the hip moves well through and into the opponents body with both legs underneath for maximum upward drive. It is essential in throws of this type to pull the enemy hard into the body to assist leverage. The enemy should also be driven strongly into the ground.

Front Body Drop Against Punch

1. Enemy attacks with a right punch to the head. Block the punch with a left head block.
2. As you block, grip the clothing pulling the arm down and move forward taking the right hand to the left collar.
3. Grab the clothing behind the neck with the right hand asthe right leg moves forward.
4. Continue the movement of the right leg forward and through puliling the enemy hard into the side and twist hard round to the left.
5. Continue turning to the left pulling with both arms until the enemy falls over the right leg. As enemy drops over the leg release the grip with the right hand so as not to fall to the ground.
6. Raise the right hand and prepare for a counter.
7. Counter with a right downward punch to the kidneys.

Special Points: Essential to drive into the enemy pulling back as soon as possible to stop him bending forward out of the throw.

Outside Sweep

1. Enemy attacks with a left front kick.
2. Move to the right, blocking the kick with a left low block.
3. Move forward grabbing the enemy by the arm and shoulder.
4. Sweep the leg pulling the enemy to the rear with both arms.
5. Control the enemy on the ground.
6. Press down onto the side with the left nee and raise the right arm to counter.
7. Drive the right fist into the face.

Special Points: Essential that the sweeping leg is brought quickly back to regain balance and assist with backward momentum.

Inside Sweep

1. Enemy attacks with a left punch to the head.
2. Grab the punching arm with the right hand grabbing the clothing on the shoulder with the left.
3. Drive the left foot to the inside of the enemy's left leg.
4. Sweep the leg pulling forward with the left hand.
5. Continue to pull taking the enemy over and to the ground. Assist the turn by lifting up and over with the right hand.
6. Keeping a firm hold with the right hand raise the left arm to counter.
7. strike down to the face with a left fist.

Special Points: Essential to co-ordinate the pull and the sweep for maximum effect.

Outside Hook

1. Enemy attacks with a right punch to the head. Evade the punch with a double arm block to the outside of the punch.
2. Grab the punching arm with both hands hooking the right foot behind the front ankle.
3. Lift the foot forwards and up pulling to the rear with both hands. As with the 'outside sweep' pull thehooking leg quickly back to the rear to regain balance.
4. Drop onto body with the right knee lifting the right arm to counter.
5. Drive the right fist down into the groin.

Special Points: Essentail to hook leg forward and up to break the balance.

Inside Hook

1. Enemy attacks by grabbing the upper body and attepting a knee strike. Lower the body smothering the attack taking the left arm down under the attacking leg.
2. Grab the leg with the left arm taking the right arm around the back.
3. Step forward and through with the right leg hooking around the enemy's supporting leg.
4. Hook the leg and drive the enemy to the ground. Pull back before landing to maintain initiative and balance.
5. Control the head by forcing the right hand into the face.
6. Stand, lifting the leg, exposing the groin and raise right arm to counter.
7. Drive the right fist down into the groin. Special Points: The right hand comes away from the back before the enemy hits the floor. Lower onto the right knee to prevent falling on top and losing control.

GUN USE

For many centuries the gun has proven to be a vital part of any military operation. The gun is a system by which pieces of metal are force in a desired direction at a tremendous velocity by the use of small explosive charges. The following text will run over a few gun catagories and explain how they work and how to use them.

The Hand Gun

Hand guns generally come in two main types: A revolver, and a semi-automatic. The latter of the two is more commonly seen. The revolver works by means of a tumbler that usually houses 6 bullets. To load a revolver, there is usually a small bar under the barrel. This is pulled and the tumbler will fall out to one side. The bullets are then loaded into their respective holes in the tumbler. The tumbler is then pushed back into the original position and the trigger is pulled to release the rounds. For each trigger pull one round is released. The tumbler will rotate around to the position that the next bullet is and then it is ready to be shot once more.

The semi-automatic hand gun works on a different principle. The bullets are stored in a magazine, which is inserted into the handle of the gun until a click is heard. The bullets in the semi-automatic gun are stacked one on top of the other within the magazine. Once the magazine has been secured in the gun, the top slide must be pulled back. This is done by gripping the top of the gun with the thumb on one side and the side of the index finger on the other. The top is then pulled back then released. It will then spring into its original position. This action allows one bullet to move up into the barrel or chamber. After, the trigger has been squeezed and the shot fired, the top slide will automatically slide back as before releasing the spent shell and moving the next one into the chamber. After all of the rounds have been used the top slide will slide back as before and stay there. The magazine is then taken out by means of a catch or button on the side of the handle. The new magazine is then put in and a catch or lever usually on the left hand side is pushed down and the first round is then loaded. the safety catch on a semi-automatic hand gun is usually positioned on the left hand side above the thumb and is often indicated by a red dot when it is not on.

Aiming the hand gun

There are several methods to hold a hand gun or pistol. The most common of which is often known as the cup and saucer method. The pistol is gripped in, say, the right hand. The base of the handle on the gun is then placed in the palm of the 'left' hand and the fingers of the 'left' hand are curled up to grip the bottom of the gun. The gun is then aimed by straightening the 'right' hand, but keeping a slight bend in the elbow. The left leg is positioned ahead of the right and the aim is then taken up.

Rifles

There are literally many types of rifle. The basic principle is the same. These guns often also use a magazine and are loaded in much the same way as the semi-automatic hand gun. The difference comes in that there is no top slide but rather a lever on the right hand side. Once the magazine is in place the lever is pulled back by gripping it along the base of the fingers with the palm facing up and releasing.

Aiming the rifle

There are also many methods of aiming the rifle. The most common methed is to grip the handle with the right hand. Bring the rifle up to face in front of you running parallel to the ground. Place the barrel section of the rifle on an open left hand. The fingers should be on the right hand side and the thumb on the left. Curl the fingers and thumb around the barrel section. Keeping the left arm bent and the elbow tucked into the body. The right elbow is then raised so that the arm is parallel with the ground. The rear of the rifle, or butt, is then firmly tucked into the front of the right shoulder. The left leg is aprx. one shoulder witdth infront of the rear and apx. one shoulder width off to the side. The aim is then taken up.

Weapon handling

It is essential that you are capable of firing your weapon accurately and instinctively in the event of a situation arising. This can best be achieved if you understand and apply the following marksmanship principles.

A. The position and hold must be firm enough to support the weapon.

B. The weapon must point naturall at the target without any undue physical effort.

C. Sight alignment must be correct.

D. The shot should be released and followed through without disturbance to the aim.

Aiming

1. The influence of wind and other factors affect the fall of a shot. It will frequently be neccessary to aim away from the centre and at times off the target to attain a central hit.

2. In a gun fight an enemy may be located by muzzle flash, smoke or movement.

3. In the early stages of shooting training, a white patch is super imposed on the target. Always aim at the bottom of the patch. Initially it serves as a defined point of aim (POA) for grouping practices. Later, the patch will be used as a datum point for zeroing.

4. When engaging targets without a patch, select a POA that will apply fire to the target centre.

Aiming can never become instinctive, thogh practice can induce speed. Above all it requires concentration to achieve sight alignment together with the correct aim picture which is a four point relationship between the eye, the centre of the aperture, the tip of the foresight and the POA.

The final marksmanship principle is: the shot must be released and followed through without disturbance to the aim. If this is carried out correctly, providing that the correct aim and hold are adopted, the bullet will go in the direction in which the barrel is pointing.

Firing a shot

"The shot should be fired without disturbance to the aim". In oder to do this the position and hold must be stable and the weapon must point naturally at the target. Providing the rythm of breathing is controlled and the trigger is operated smoothly, the shot will be released and the bullet will leave the muzzle without any undue movement of the weapon.

Breath control

Breathing is a natural bodily function which will continue at a steady rate and without strain, untill an individual does something to disturb the cycle. It is important, therefore, to regulate and control the breathing during the time the shot is released and to do it without strain.

Trigger operation

During the period of breath restraint the aim must be perfected and the trigger operated to achieve a shot release without any alteration to the aim or to the grip.

Declaration

As the shot is fired the recoil action causes the weapon to move and the direction of this movement should be consistent for successive shots. Direction of movement can be indentified by consentrating on the aim picture throughout the process of trigger operation. When the direction of movement is not consistent with that of previous firing, it is an indication that all is not well, and it may be found that this particular shot will be displaced from the remainder of the group.

Remember! The ability to shoot well requires coordination and control of a number of skills and the consistent application of the previously mentioned marksmanship principles.

In battle or during range work, the strength and direction of the wind have a direct effect influence on the path of the bullet. It is essential that you make allowances to counter this influence and ensure a first round hit. It is also important to know how to react, should the shot miss the target.

Aiming off for elevation and direction.

Errors in elevation and direction can be overcome by changing the POA, for example if, fom the POA, the shot is seen to be high (300mm) and to the left (100mm), reaim low (300mm) and to the right (100mm) of the original POA. Errors in the elevation can only be corrected by altering the range setting. An alteration of one graduation on the range drum will alter the position of the mean point of impact (MPI) by approximately the same number of millimeters as the range of the target. ie. 200m = 200mm, 300m + 300mm, etc. When firing at small targets at ranges of 200m or less, aim at the bottom of the target.

Aiming off for wind.

Only a wind blowing across the front at ranges greater than 100m will make the bullet veer considerably. To allow for this, aim off to into the wind: the direction of the wind can be determined by its effect on the face, trees dust and smoke. The amount to aim off is determined by the strength of the wind.

1. A fresh wind has an appreciable effect on bushes and thin branches of trees and can be distinclty felt on the side of the face. It would cause flags to stand about half way out from the pole.

2. A strong wind has a noticable effect on tree tops and lifts dust off dry grounds. Range flags would tend to strain away from their poles.

In windy conditions at ranges greater than 100m the following POA should be used for fresh wind (10kph) and strong (20kph).

A. Fresh wind 200m : POA is halfway between the centre and the edge of the target.
B. Strong wind 200m: POA is at the edge of the target.
C. Fresh wind 300m: POA is at the edge of the target.
D. Strong wind 300m: POA is one target width from the centre of the target.

Gun Fight Situations

When in a gun fight situation, when possible, indentify the type of weapon used and identify the type and number of rounds associated with it. This way you will be able to count the bullets and catch the enemy on a reload. To count the rounds try not to mentally count 1,2,3,4 - rather let the pattern of shots enter you mind and asses them. Practice by watching films - people often use 8-9 rounds from a 6-round revolver. Be aware of extended magazines! When in a gunfight, do not always aim directly at the target. use knock on effects. If there is an explosive cylinder nearby the target aim for it and cancel the enemy that way. Likewise, loosly hung heavy or electrical objects can be knocked/shot down onto the enemy. If the enemy is standing in a pool of gas or petrol aim at the floor or metal object nearby. If the enemy is in a pool of water, aim to move an electrical applience into the watery area. Never watse ammunition. Take an aim as much as possible. With an automatic - use short, sharp, directed, bursts of fire. When under enemy fire - find cover. if none is available create some. Target any explosive or smoke/steam producing objects between you and the enemy. Open a car door an get behind it.

When engaged in a gun fight - take two shots at the target with out aiming whilst moving to cover. Once in cover, take aim and cancel the target.

Never reach for id with your gun hand.

SPECIAL AMMUNITION

Blow Guns

The blowgun is an interesting weapon which has several advantages. A blowgun can be extremely accurate, concealable, and deliver an explosive or poisoned projectile. The manufacture of an explosive dart or projectile is not difficult.

Perhaps the most simple design for such involves the use of a pill capsule, such as the kind that are taken for headaches or allergies. Empty gelatin pill capsules can be purchased from most health-food stores. Next, the capsule would be filled with an impact-sensitive explosive, such as mercury fulminate. An additional high explosive charge could be placed behind the impact sensitive explosive, if one of the larger capsules were used.

Finally, the explosive capsule would be reglued back together, and a tassel or cotton would be glued to the end containing the high explosive, to insure that the impact-detonating explosive struck the target first.

Such a device would probably be about 3/4 of an inch long. Care must be taken- if a powerful dart went off in the blowgun, you could easily blow the back of your head off.

Wrist Rockets And Sling Shots

A modern wristrocket is a formidable weapon. It can throw a shooter marble about 500 ft. with reasonable accuracy. Inside of 200 ft., it could well be lethal to a man or animal, if it struck in a vital area. Because of the relatively large sized projectile that can be used in a wristrocket, the wristrocket can be adapted to throw relatively powerful explosive projectiles.

A small segment of aluminum pipe could be made into an impact-detonating device by filling it with an impact-sensitive explosive material.

Also, such a pipe could be filled with a low-order explosive, and fitted with a fuse, which would be lit before the device was shot. One would have to make sure that the fuse was of sufficient length to insure that the device did not explode before it reached its intended target.

Finally, .22 caliber caps, such as the kind that are used in .22 caliber blank guns, make excellent exploding ammunition for wristrockets, but they must be used at a relatively close range, because of their light weight.

Firearms

When special ammunition is used in combination with the power and rapidity of modern firearms, it becomes very easy to take on a small army with a single weapon. It is possible to buy explosive ammunition, but that can be difficult to do. Such ammunition can also be manufactured in the home. There is, however, a risk involved with modifying any ammunition. If the ammunition is modified incorrectly, in such a way that it makes the bullet even the slightest bit wider, an explosion in the barrel of the weapon will occur.

Handguns

If an individual wished to produce explosive ammunition for his/her handgun, he/she could do it, provided that the person had an impact-sensitive explosive and a few simple tools. One would first purchase all lead bullets, and then make or acquire an impact-detonating explosive. By drilling a hole in a lead bullet with a drill, a space could be created for the placement of an explosive. After filling the hole with an explosive, it would be sealed in the bullet with a drop of hot wax from a candle. This hollow space design also works for putting poison in bullets.

Shotguns

Because of their large bore and high power, it is possible to create some extremely powerful special ammunition for use in shotguns. If a shotgun shell is opened at the top, and the shot removed, the shell can be re-closed. Then, if one can find a very smooth, lightweight wooden dowel that is close to the bore width of the shotgun, a person can make several types of shotgun-launched weapons.

Insert the dowel in the barrel of the shotgun with the shell without the shot in the firing chamber. Mark the dowel about six inches away from the end of the barrel, and remove it from the barrel.

Next, decide what type of explosive or incendiary device is to be used. This device can be a chemical fire bottle (sect. 3.43), a pipe bomb (sect 4.42), or a thermite bomb (sect 3.41 and 4.42). After the device is made, it must be securely attached to the dowel. When this is done, place the dowel back in the shotgun. The bomb or incendiary device should be on the end of the dowel.

Make sure that the device has a long enough fuse, light the fuse, and fire the shotgun. If the projectile is not too heavy, ranges of up to 300 ft are possible.

Special "grenade-launcher blanks" should be used- use of regular blank ammunition may cause the device to land perilously close to the user.

Compressed Air/Gas Weapons

This section deals with the manufacture of special ammunition for compressed air or compressed gas weapons, such as pump B.B guns, CO2 B.B guns, and .22 cal pellet guns. These weapons, although usually thought of as kids toys, can be made into rather dangerous weapons.

B.B GUNS

A B.B gun, for this manuscript, will be considered any type of rifle or pistol that uses compressed air or CO2 gas to fire a projectile with a caliber of .177, either B.B, or lead pellet. Such guns can have almost as high a muzzle velocity as a bullet-firing rifle. Because of the speed at which a .177 caliber projectile flies, an impact detonating projectile can easily be made that has a caliber of .177.

Most ammunition for guns of greater than .22 caliber use primers to ignite the powder in the bullet. These primers can be bought at gun stores, since many people like to reload their own bullets. Such primers detonate when struck by the firing pin of a gun. They will also detonate if they are thrown at a hard surface at a great speed.

Usually, they will also fit in the barrel of a .177 caliber gun. If they are inserted flat end first, they will detonate when the gun is fired at a hard surface. If such a primer is attached to a piece of thin metal tubing, such as that used in an antenna, the tube can be filled with an explosive, be sealed, and fired from a B.B gun.

The front primer is attached to the tubing with a drop of super glue. The tubing is then filled with an explosive, and the rear primer is glued on. Finally, a tassel, or a small piece of cotton is glued to the rear primer, to insure that the projectile strikes on the front primer. The entire projectile should be about 3/4 of an inch long.

.22 Caliber pellet guns

.22 caliber pellet gun usually is equivalent to a .22 cal rifle, at close ranges. Because of this, relatively large explosive projectiles can be adapted for use with .22 caliber air rifles. A design similar to that used in section 5.12 is suitable, since some capsules are about .22 caliber or smaller. Or, a design similar to that in section 5.31 could be used, only one would have to purchase black powder percussion caps, instead of ammunition primers, since there are percussion caps that are about .22 caliber. A #11 cap is too small, but anything larger will do nicely.

WEAPONS TACTICS

The assassin regards anything and everything as a weapon. From a firearm or sword, down to a feather in the enemy's throat. The key to successful defense using objects other than the empty hand is - Improvisation. The spine of a book can be used to deliver an effective strike to the throat or nasal area, as can a credit card. In ninjitsu the ninja would never perform a block as such, rather they would aim to attack the incoming threat. This can be kept in mind whenever using weapons.

Tips for weapons - To enforce the forearms and shins against attack. Wear shin guards with metal bones in. These can also be worn on the arm, although martial art forearm guards are available. They should be fitted with metal bars, plates or bones to ensure devatating blocks and protection from blade attacks. For defense against headlock manouvers, sewing pins should be carried in the outside edge of the top of trousers. Keep a knife in trouser pockets or fixed to a belt. Do not place in jacket pockets as these pockets are more prone to move and become twisted and unavailable in a combat situation.

This next section of text will run through a few weapons, both modern and traditional, and attempt to provide some insight into their use and substitutes.

Eskrima Sticks.

These are oriental weapons form india. They comprise of a hard wooden stick apx. the length of the users arm. They are often used in pairs. The following text will describe the basic use of the single eskrima stick.

Substitutes: Half a pool cue, tree branches, any short, straight, hard stick, pole or bar.

Application: attacks

*The weapon is held in the right hand, apx 1 1/2 widths of a fist from the base. The length of the weapon should extend forwards and away from the body. The left leg should lead as this allows you to block with the lead hand and strike with the weapon hand.

*An effective downward strike can be performed by moving the elbow into the centre of the body and allowing the furthest point of theweapon to execute a large circle by twisting the wrist inwards.. The point of the weapon should proceed straight down passed the knee and up passed the shoulder. Add power as the weapon goes round. This technique can be applied to areas such as the clavicle, sternocleidomastoid region and top of the head.

*Another technique is to bring the weapon around from the right hand side in a sweeping motion. This can be executed against areas like the temples, temporomandibular joint, liver, spleen, ribs, ears, arms legs and knees.

*The base of the weapon can also be used to strike the enemy by using a jabbing motion, in areas such as the temple and neck region, the spinal column, kidneys and ribs.

*The base can also be used as an effective uppercut type move. This would be used on areas such as the testes, nasal area and tip of the jaw.

*An alternative method of holding the weapon would be to place it in the right hand as before. Then bring the furthest piont straight up and over and behind the right shoulder. The left hand would then grasp the 'loose' end from under the right armpit. Form here a number of strike can be executed by both hands. This has the advantage that the enemy does not no where the strike will orignate from until it is to late.

Application: Blocks

*The weapon can also be used to generate some devestating blocks againgst a number of attacks.

*A simple downward block can be perfomed by bring the futhest point straight down passed the left hand side, ending just passed the right knee. The left hand is brought into the body to act as protection.

*A block to the middle section would be performed by bringing the right hand horizontally across to the left, keeping the base of the weapon parallel to the ground, and the length of the weapon vertical. Slightly shift the body weight to the right to add power. This block can be quickly followed up by a sweeping strike originating from the left side.

*A high section block can be executed by turning the weapon to fall across the body, with the further most point on the left side and the length parallel to the ground. Bend the legs, dropping the body weight as you push the right hand straight up above the head.

The Jo

The jo is the japanese short staff. It is apx. 5ft high or as tall as from the ground to the users shoulder. It is often made of a hard wood and is used on its own.

Substitutes: Pool cue, Broom stick, other poles, sticks and bars of apx. 5ft in length.

Application: attacks

*The jo is held apx. 2ft in from the right with the right hand, palm facing down. and apx. 2ft in from the left end with the left hand , palm facing up.

*The most effective strike is to pull the left hand in to the body while pushing the right hand out, striking the target with the right end. This can also be executed in the same fachion on the left side. By alternating, low right, middle left and high right, you can produce a fast combination of attacks. Always be sure to pull and push to gain maximum power. Target areas: legs, knees, arms, ribs, side of the neck, temporomandibular joint, ears, temples.

*Another technique is to move the left hand across to the right making the weapon become vertical on the right hand side. The right hand is then pushed upwards to perform an uppercut type move. From here, another strike can be executed by slightly lowering the right hand and placing the left hand so that the palm is facing the opposite wya to which it should. The right hand is then brought sharply down to the right hip and the left hand sharply brought down onto the target. Target areas: tip of the jaw, testes, nose, armpit. // clavicle, top of head.

*Another strike can be can be performed by moving the left end out to face away from the body on the right hand side, keeping the weapon parallel to the ground. Slide the right hand to the back of the right end. Step forward with the left leg and push with the right hand, allowing the weapon to slide through the left hand causing a 'stabbing' effect. This is useful when being charged at. Target areas: Groin, liver, spleen, throat, diaphragm, eyes.

Application: blocks

*Use the same methods as those used for the eskrima stick. However, keep both hands in position and use the central part of the weapon to take the attack.

The Knife

The knife is probably the most common weapon that will be incountered. Contrary to popular belief, the knife can be used as a method of attack and defense. More techniques will be discussed in -sentry removal.

Substitutes; Sharpe pieces of wood, glass, pens, small sticks, etc.

*There are two main methods to hold a knife. These will be discussed seperately.

*The first method is to take the knife, place it in the hand with the sharp edge facing across the body. Start with the hand flat out palm facing up. Place the knife across the base of the fingers, with the bottom of the handle facing you and the top pointing away, running just across the first bone sectionof the index finger. Curl the fingers in over the handle. Then place the thumb on top of the handle, nail facing up, and pointing in the direction of the blade.

Application: attacks

*The straight thrust is performed by pushing the knife hand straight forwards into the target. Target areas; heart, diaphragm, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs.

*By performing a hook type motion, moving the knife to come into the target from the side, successful penetration and damage can be attianed. Target areas; Temples, jugular viens in the neck region, ears, mastoid, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs

*Performing a straight thrust with the blade facing upwards, and causing the knife to rise into the target, a fatal penetration can be attained. Target areas: Liver, spleen, kidneys, diaphragm, heart, lungs.

Application: Defense

*There are not many defensive options using this method of handling the knife. The best ways to defened yourself against an attack is to use the blade to re-direct the attack, by pushing it out of the way.

Handling 2

*The second method of holding a knife is to adopt the ice pick grip. This can be seen as the method used by Steven Seagal in many of his films. Take the knife and place it in the hand exactly as before, however, this time the blade should be facing you as if you were about to stab yourself. The sharp edge must be gacing away from you so as to not cut your wrists during defensive moves.

Application: Attack

*One method of attack is to move the knife in a clockwise, circular motion (if in right hand, anti-clockwise if in left hand) puching the blade out across the target causing a slicing effect. Target areas: Chest, face, neck area.

*A second method is as above, but rising up in an uppercut manner, slicing the target vertically rather than horizontally. Target areas: Chest, throat, face.

*Turn the hand palm up and perform a hook motion, digging the blade into the target from the side. Target areas: side of body, neck area, ears, mastoid, side of the head.

*The above method can aslo be executed from the opposite side. Bring the knife hand to the opposite side of the body, turn the palm to face down. Thrust the knife out into the target from the side. Target areas; as before.

Application: Defense

*Use the blade to block any incoming attack by either, turning it to face away from the body and into the attack. Re-directing the attack away from your body and attacking it at the same time. This can be followed up by a strike as stated in point 3.

*If the attack comes from the other side, move the knife hand across the body to the opposite side, shifting the body weight to the knife hand side. A follow up can be executed as stated in point 4.

*By performing a basic low block, the blade can protect against a low section attack.

A Small Selection Of Other Weapons

The Glimmer Card

Based on the pocket weapon used by Steven Seagal in the film 'The Glimmer Man'. This weapon can be easily concealed and easily carried. The effects of the weapon can be fatal if used correctly. There are 3 ways to build an effective glimmer card. Number A is the most effective and, therefore, the most complex, number B is also very effective but less complex in construction, type C is the simplest to construct and is also effective:

A. Take an old credit card or pocket card of similar size and material. Using a very thin blade, cut a deep grove into the longest edge of the card. Now take two small razor blades (ie gillette sensor excel blades), and place into the grove blade pointing out. Secure with glue or by other appropriate means.

B. Take the card and, using glue or something similar, attatch the blades to the back of the card running down the longest edge.

C. Rather than using small blades, use a file to sharpen one length of the card into a cutting edge. This too will provide an extremly destructive device and can also prove to be fatal if used correctly. This method also looks less suspicious.

Nunchaku

The nunchaku is basicaly two pieces of heavy hard material, usually wood, connected by an end to each other via a cord or chain. There are two main types of nunchaku: Long handles and short connection, and shorter handles with a longer connection. The later type is recommended as they can be used in vice inducing techniques, strangles, strikes, whips, etc.

The simplest method of construction is to take a hard wood broom stick and cut two peices each being approximately 7.5 inches long. Take two nails and remove the flat heads. Bend the nail to form a U shape. Now take a length of chain (preferably bike combination lock chain) and cut a peice approximately 7-8 inches long. Using the nails, attach one end of the chain to a flat end of one of the 'handles' and repeat for the other.

A fake wash off tattoo design can now be placed onto the nunchaku and should be varnished to fix.

Blow Pipe

There are many ways to make a blowpipe, the following is probably the simplest method. It can also be improvised in times of need very quickly and effectively.

Take a MacDonalds straw, or any other thick straw.

Cut off the end of an old, or new, shoe lace - about 5-10mm from the hard plastic bit. The plastic bit must be on.

Get a pin and insert it up through the length of the end of shoe lace. from the cut end up and out the uncut/original end. Spread out the soft bit That is the dart. This can be improvised as follows: Take a pen and remove the insides.You have a the main body of the pen empty, this will be the blow pipe. Either use some of the above darts or, if there are none available, take a small piece of paper, roll it up so it will fit inside the pipe. This must be done in such a manner that the paper does'nt unroll when you let go. Push a pin through as before and the dart is complete. This can now be poisen tipped.

SENTRY REMOVAL

Knifing Techniques

The principle of Nyudaki No Jitsu is used to take advantage of the psychological weakness of a target. Nyudaki is translated from the Japanese to mean "idleness" or a "dislike for being industrious." It is advisable to select your target carefully. Bear three things in mind when seeking to discover the shortcomings of an enemy: first, never look down on the enemy and underestimate him; second, never fear the enemy and act without confidence; and third, never hesitate. In attacking your target, two facets should be considered: he must be killed as quickly as possible, and he must make no outcry. It is preferable to remove a target when he will be least missed, such as shortly after post checks, or going off for something.

Techniques

The following text will describe six basic assassination options: Slitting the throat, Kidney thrust, Subclavian artery thrust, jugular thrust, the heart thrust, the diaphragm thrust. In all cases, approach the target from behind to within three or four feet and assume a basic fighting stance, keeping low by bending the knees, holding the knife in the rear hand (right) while the lead arm (left) acts to seize and hold the enemy for the knife thrust. This will enable you to make a lightning strike by springing on him.

1.Slitting The Throat

Spring forward and cup the enemy chin with the left palm, lifting it clear of the throat. Draw the blade across the throat at the level of the cricoid cartilage, begging at the hilt and stroking to the tip. This attack slices the trachea, preventing any sort of outcry; then cuts deeper, severing the carotid sheath. The target dies within twelve seconds due to oxygen starvation of the brain. Unconsciousness occurs in five seconds.

2. Kidney Thrust

Spring forward, solidly whipping the left wrist into the enemy's trachea to prevent outcry. The effectiveness of this blow is easily demonstrated by tapping one's Adams apple with only one-twentieth of the force required. This action disrupts the phrenic nerve, causing the diaphragm to cease pumping air in and out of the lungs. Simultaneously drive the knife into the kidney horizontally. Cut to both sides by pushing and pulling the wrist side to side. Death results in thirty seconds and no help of man can prevent it.

3. Subclavian Artery Thrust

Spring forward and clamp the left hand over the mouth and nose in the method known as the one hand smother. Pulling the nose between your thumb and the first joint of the opposing index finger. Grip the jaws between the heel of the hand and the remaining finger tips. This method alone will require almost two minutes to produce unconsciousness. Holding the knife in the ice-pick grip (Steven Seagal style), thrust the point well down behind the clavicle (collarbone) and cut side to side. Death will result in three seconds from severing the subclavian artery.

4. Jugular Thrust

Spring forward and employ the one hand smother. Pull the enemy's head to the left and thrust the knife horizontally well into the leading edge of the sterno-cleio-mastoideus muscle running around the side of the neck. This severs the carotid sheath which contains the carotid artery, jugular vein, and vagus nerve. Cut side to side. Death ensures in twelve seconds, unconsciousness in five.

5. Heart Thrust

Spring forward, sliding your left arm over the enemy's right arm and up to clamp over his mouth from below. Bend him backwards, breaking his balance o the rear. Drive the knife slightly upward under the rib cage to penetrate the heart. Cut side to side. Death comes in three seconds, unconsciousness is induced instantly.

6. Diaphragm Thrust

Spring forward, solidly whipping the left wrist into the enemy's trachea to prevent outcry. Pulling the enemy's head slightly left, reach around with the right hand and drive the knife at a 45 degree upward angle just below the rib cage. Cut side to side. This rips the diaphragm muscle preventing oxygen intake. Death results in twelve seconds, unconsciousness fairly instantly.

ATTACKING FROM AMBUSH

There are three basic methods of attacking from ambush; from above, below and behind. The initial attack must always be totally incapacitating, while catching the enemy off guard.

1. Ambush From Above

Begin by gaining a position above the enemy hiding in a superior position and wait for the enemy to come into range. Bare in mind that when being attacked from above people seldom look up, and they tend to shoot under the target when firing up. Fix your gaze at the back of the enemy skull.

Drop on the enemy, striking him with your full weight. Employ the knees to strike the shoulder blades and drive him straight down, breaking your own fall with his body. Try not to land directly on his head; though this frequently snaps[ps the neck, the body does not fall properly. Should the enemy hear or sense the attack and turn the technique will still succeed.

Ride the enemy body to the ground, crushing his spine beneath you. Apply the coup de grace by striking the base of the skull with the rear hand, breaking the neck.

2. Ambush From Above

When cover is scarce or low, consider attacking from below. Select a point of concealment above which the enemy will pass and from which you may launch your assault unseen. Hidden low beside a door is a good example.

As the enemy passes, cup his rear foot in the palm of your hand ( lead arm ), simultaneously poising the knife in the rear hand.

Scoop the enemy foot forward as he shifts his weight forward onto his lead foot, lifting it clear of the ground and breaking his balance to the rear. Cock the knife beside your ear that faces away from the enemy in an ice pick grip.

As the enemy falls beside you, landing on his shoulders. Pivot over your lead knee and drive the knife downward into his heart. It is essential that you sweep the enemy as he takes his weight off his rear foot. This prevents him from saving himself by taking a quick step forward.

3. Ambush From Behind

Advance to a position behind the enemy, armed in this case with a garrote. This consists of a length of thin steel cable apx. two feet long. This could be substituted with a pair of nunchukas.

Wrap the ends of the cable around your fists and grip the central position with the thumbs.

Drop the garrote over the enemy's head and pull back with both hands, exerting sufficient pressure to force the enemy backward. His reaction will be to try to seize the garrote and relieve the pressure to his throat. This attack affects the trachea, preventing any outcry, as well as shutting off the blood supply to the brain through carotid artery.

Continue to exert choking pressure with the arms, crossing the fists behind the enemy neck. Drive the knee upward into the small of his back, breaking his spine. To finish him off, you can twist to your right, dropping him face down, and sit atop him on your knee until he ceases to struggle.

STRANGLE HOLDS

. The Rear Naked Choke

This is not a true strangle hold, but one in which the pressure of the forearm is directed against the windpipe. This hold is quite painful, causing the enemy to struggle more violently. This choke, however, will induce unconsciousness, usually if applied improperly.

2. Classical Method

Whip the left forearm around the enemy throat, striking him in the trachea with the inside edge of the wrist or hand. This action will cause him to inhale sharply. Continue the action until the crook of the left forearm/elbow lies against the injured trachea. The left bicep pressing the left side of the neck and the left forearm pressing the right side of the neck. Clamp the right fingertips behind the enemy skull with the fingertips behind his left ear. Grip your right bicep with your left palm. Relax the left arm pushing with the right palm. This is not a punishing hold to the enemy, since he could still breath if your throat strike had not damaged the phrenic nerve. Pressure is, instead, applied to the sides of the neck, specifically against the carotid artery. When the blood supply to the brain is cut off, unconsciousness results in five seconds. If the hold is improperly performed and only one artery is cut off it will take ten to fifteen.

The Tel Shia technique is useful should the enemy seek to escape by reaching behind to strike your groin. Extend the fingers of both hands forming the Shuto with each (spear hand/chop position), then step quickly back with the right leg pulling him down. This action will rip the skull from the spinal column resulting in instant death.

CAPTURE IN PASSING

Inpo, the art of hiding, taught how to remain unseen to the enemy. Tonpo, likewise, teaches us how to vanish from the view of the enemy.

1. Clouding The Mind

This method is employed when the enemy is poised in a wide stance, but has not yet advanced. Lower the body for better balance. Relax both wrists so the hands hang loosely with the backs to the enemy. Raise the hands, arms extended between you, aiming the back of the wrists at the enemy face. You must do this not so slowly that he reacts before you and not so fast that he ignores the movement. Watch your own hands- they will induce the enemy to do like wise. The idea is to focus his attention on your hands.

Step quickly forward, lowering the body still more. This will move the hands forward but, since the arms are not moving and the perspective is foreshortened, you will be upon him before he has chance to react. Flick the backs of your hands forward. He will flinch or blink.

Immediately as you flash or haze the enemy, drop straight down over the feet in a squatting position. The enemy will raise his guard and block you from view.

As you sink out of sight, and see the enemy lifting his guard, tuck your head into you chest, round the shoulders, and push off with both feet. Execute a forward roll as your hands touch the ground behind/to the side of him. This will enable you to vanish downward to a position ten feet away. Preferably roll into a pre-selected point of concealment.

2. Vaulting The Enemy

This method is employed when the enemy attempts a low line attack, such as a leg dive or tackle.

The enemy steps forwards, dropping the shoulders and reaching for the knees. Effect a back-out step by slapping down onto his back and sliding both feet to the rear. This prevents the leg dive and stalls the enemy in a forward stance.

Push off with both hands and jump straight up spreading the legs. The combination of the enemy's forward momentum and your own spring will carry him under you. Some practitioners prefer to grip the head when vaulting, thus insuring that it remain low enough to prevent accidental groin injury.

Any type of Roman Horse vault will suffice to clear the enemy, depending on the agility of the practitioner and the depth of the enemy attack. In this way one vanishes upward to about three or five feet behind the enemy. Also you could execute a back kick as you land, then fall into a forward roll, carrying you into a pre-selected point of concealment. Therefore, covering more distance and obtaining a good hiding place.

3. Go Behind Step

This method requires an external distraction to be truly effective. Two methods are preferred, one being Kiai, the spirit shout. This is a belly shout drawn from the Hara. It is a scream of total commitment. Charge the enemy from out of range, feinting a ferocious attack to the eyes. This attack must be sufficiently terrifying to startle the enemy and make him cover his own eyes in defence.

"Sand in the eyes", is the second distraction which is used to temporarily blind the enemy. A handful of dirt will do nicely for this technique.

Cup the right palm lightly, keeping the dust concealed from the enemy. Swing the arm in a semi-circular arc, crossing from the right to left hip, up to the left shoulder, then back in front of the right shoulder. Abruptly stop the right palm in an extended shoulder block position, casting the powder into the face of the enemy. As you begin the casting movement, step forward with the left. this will give the impression that you are planning your escape in that direction.

As the enemy gropes forward into what he believes to be your position, duck under his attack to his lead side. In this way you will have less distance to get behind him. This is a variation of the spinning back pivot. Fix your attention on the left temple of the enemy. This is where you will strike him should he not have been blinded.

If you are close enough to the enemy, the action of casting will carry your extended fingertips horizontally across his eyes producing the desired effect.

Execute the second half of the lost track pivot, slipping by the enemy as his grasp closes on emptiness. You are now invisible behind his own left shoulder. Continue to target his left temple. You may now pivot into the final lost track pivot position and assume a stance behind the enemy, or dart behind cover to vanish, or simply flee.

In this way, you vanish completely - in full view of the enemy.

LYING METHODOLOGY

At numerous times, the assasin will be confronted with a situation in which they will need to lie or bend the truth in order to preserve information. The best way to lie is to tell the truth. When asked if you've been smoking drugs in the house, answer 'yeah of course I have. And I throw the butt out the window so you wouldn't know'. This must said in a sarcastic manner. If they question you again, reply, 'Do you really think I have?' If asked again - 'If you think I did then I have already been convicted and whatever I say will not change your opinion'. This way you avoid the question. And because you are in fact telling the truth, you cannot get accussed of lying in the future if the subject comes to light again. However, it must be stressed that this method should never be used against authoritive figures such as the police. They will take everything at face value. The main points to be stressed are that the assasin, when wishing to keep the truth, should always act naturally, both in attitude and body posture. A lie can be detected when the subject becomes defensive. This can include a strong, demanding manner of speaking, and a defense body position such as crossing the arms. Eye contact should be kept at all times. However, if the subject is known to lack confidence and rarely make eye contact, this should not be invoked, the natural, daily manner should be adopted. Likewise, the eye contact should not be piercing and demanding itself. Simply just looking at the questioner will provide the desired result. The assasin should aim the point of eye contact between the eyes of the questioner. This provides the contact the questioner is looking for and reduces the ability of the questioner analyzing the subject as no direct eye contact is being giving. This method also provides a more relaxed state for the assasin.

Movement is also a give away to a lie. Fidgiting, rocking and playing with body parts, such as the fingers, face, hair, etc. Project a sense of nervouness which can also be connected to guilt. Having said this, the subject, by no means, should keep excessively still, or in a stiff posture. The assasin should remain calm, consciousless and relaxed at all times. This will aid in the natural flow of the answers rather than a nervous approach.

Many figues of authority will back up their own statements with false accounts in order to gain the truth. The subject should also back up the statements used. The closer to the truth they are the better they will work. The assasin should always approach the situation as though they are the only one involved in a particalar incident. If the questioner refers to 'statements' made by the assasins colleagues the assasin should disregard any of these statements as they are more often a fabrication in themselves. Likewise, any apparent 'witnesses' to the events should also be considerd fabrications. This is an attempt to instill doubt into the subjects mind, and once this has settled in the questioner can break it down to the truth. Another method used by authorative figures is to raise their voice, threat and otherwise instill fear into the subject. The assasin should remain calm and relax and dismiss any such approach. At no point should the assasin become irritated or loose control as this is the point at which mistakes, confusions and errors are made.

In order for the questioner to believe what the subject is saying, the subject must come across in a convincing, confident and believable manner. There must, however, be no cockyness projected at any time by the assasin. For this to be executed succesfully, the assasin must, also, believe what they are saying. This means that even when the questioner demands the subject is wrong, they must stand their ground and demand, in return, that they are right. As soon as the slightest amount of doubt falls on on either party, they have lost. If an awkward question is asked, the assasin must have the ability to improvise in a very short amount of time. This can often be aided by a slow answer explaining the difficulty in answering the question. This will provide the subject with more time in which to come up with the answer. Other aids in providing an answer to a difficult question can be by the use of objects in the room, these will provide cues to which the assasin can base the answer upon. The full recollection of events should complement each other. Extra points that were not mentioned before should not be added in at a latter date as this will project a sense of fabrication towards the questioner. The recollection should also never change. Changes in the 'story' can be easily picked up by most people who will then question that fact by cross-referencing it with previous statements. This will result in a poor reasoning, and cast alot of suspicion over the subject. A well used method is to base the fabrication on an actual event. This way the answers will be provided in a much clearer manner as the event truly took place and will help the assasin in providing a false account as the events took place in the assasins mind. Therefore, to the assasin, the statements are not in fact false.

Another well used method, for the purpose of fabrication, is to answer a question with a question. This may not be a direct question but an attempt to avoid answering the original question.

Above all, the subject must remain calm, relaxed and believe in what they are saying.

LIE DETECTOR TESTS When you are subjected to a lie detector, they are measuring your physical responses to psychological stimuli. It's something like watching you to see if you blush. There are four levels they can measure.

1. Your response when you are just sitting there, not being asked anything.

2. Your response when you are asked a question you would have no reason to lie about. "What is your name?"

3. Your response when asked a question they consider personal or embarrassing to most people. "Have you ever wondered what it would be like to have sex with your mother?" I think only the government would have enough nerve to actually do this.

4. Your response to the questions they suspect you might lie about.

What they are looking for is whether your #4 responses are closer to #2 or #3, and if the difference is significant with respect to #1.

If your response level to #3 is much higher than any of the others, you are clearly telling the truth about #4.

If your responses to #1, #2, and #4 are low, and #3 is high, they think you are telling the truth.

If your responses to #1, #2, #3, and #4 are all the same, they think that you are either a psychopath or extremely well-adjusted and telling the truth.

If your responses to #1 and #2 are low but #3 and #4 are high, they think you are lying.

If your responses to #2, #3, and #4 are high, they think you are very nervous and they call the result "inconclusive."

This last result is easiest for most people to fabricate. The assasin would simply need to think about something embarrassing each time they ask a question. You must not relax, except between questions. A more risky alternative would be to try to relax during the questions you're going to lie about, but not during the "embarrassing" questions. If successful, this would produce the "normal truth" result they prefer to see most. If it failed, it would give the "lie" result. If you take some form of tranquilizer beforehand, you may be able to relax enough to get the "psychopath" response. This can be achieved by emptying out a disolveable plastic shelled medication tablet such as a paracetamol. This could then be filled with marijuana or similar tranquilizer. The capsule would then be reconstructed and taken shortly before the lie detection test is due to begin.

One practice method would be to wire yourself to an ohmmeter. One wire wrapped around the left index finger, the other wrapped around the right. If the reading drops from (for exapmle) 100 K-Ohms to a third of that, a lie has just been recorded. The assasin should practice lying through this means to become skilled.

However, the best method to pass a lie detector test, is to not have to take one at all. Normally if the authorities want you to take a lie detector test, then will want you to sign a piece of paper saying they are not responsible for anything that happens to you (i.e. electric shocks from sweating, internal physiological damage, etc.) However, if you believe that a lie detector test request is immanent, writing up a form saying that they are most defiantly responsible for anything that happens to you and inserting a large figure of money will usually result in the lie detector test being dismissed. This is due to the fact that they have you sign a release form, this means that people in the past have been subjected to damage of some sort and sued the the test administrators. Therefore, if you hold them responsible the chances are that you will not have be asked to take the test.

Another way to beat a lie detector test is to believe in what you are saying. People who are compulsive liar can beat lie detectors with little effort, because in their own mind everything they say is the truth to them. This is the mind set the assasin must get into if they are going to beat the test.

"Chicago is the capital of the United States."

That is false, but can be answered yes on a lie detector test and have it come up as the truth, because in the mind it is believed that Chicago is the capital of the United States.

Another method is to be completely at ease when you are taking the test. Control your breathing and take the same amount of time in between each question. A good method is to inhale twice and exhale twice before answering each question. Another way to do this is to count back from four each time you are going answer. This allows you to concentrate on the counting of numbers before you answer the question.

Remember, you know what you have done, so don't be surprised when they ask you something regarding that event. That will be coming, so must be expected.

When a lie detector test is given, they will need to establish a base line, to gauge the rest of the questions off of. Normally they will need one truth and one lie. They will ask you "Is XXX your name," and "Are you from Mars". You will need to answer yes to both questions. One good method to displace the baseline, is to load the "yes" question.

Asking your name is 95 times out of 100 what will be asked. A good way to make sure they can't use this on your baseline is believe your name is something other than what they will ask. For instance, if they ask your name, ie Peter Brown. You can add something to your name like Peter Brown-ing. That way when they ask your is this your name, and you say yes (You will be required to say yes) you are actually lying to them. If you lie, they can not establish a baseline. They do not know you are lying so they establish the baseline off of this. The results after such a test are extremely confused and it is extremely difficult to decipher it.

THE ART OF ESCAPING

For the most part, the escape route should be the same as the penetration route. It should be retraced stealthily, as if one were entering instead of leaving; indeed, this is penetration outwards. The reason for using the same route is that it is less likely to be discovered. Also, since the route has been used once, it is far move familiar. Great care must be taken not to let ones guard down during escaping.

No one can plan for all contingencies, but one can try. To this end, at least two other escape routes should be available, one directly opposite and the other veering ninety degrees from the original path. These are to be employed in the event of the primary routes discovery.

In selecting the primary route, look for means to employ stealth. In selecting alternatives, look first for means to employ speed and cover. Second look for areas where distractions can be created. If possible, locate and prepare an escape route from the guardhouse for use incase of capture. Bare in mind that when being pursued, it may be necessary to stand and fight. Select points along the way that have advantageous high ground. In short, any spot where the enemy will be hampered by obstacles can be used to ones advantage.

1. Crashing Out

The first principle of escaping is to do it as quickly as possible. The longer you remain in enemy control, the less likely you are to escape. Should you be discovered or captured in will be necessary to consider crashing out.

Locked doors which open outwards may be kicked open using a side or stamp kick. Direct the force at the door jamb with the bolt.

The shoulder can also be used to pass through locked doors. When striking with the shoulder, apply pressure as near the center as possible. This will bend the door, pulling the lock away from the frame springing it open. Doors with panels will shatter, causing you to fall forward. It is necessary to execute a forward roll out to avoid loosing momentum. Striking with the shoulder may also be used against flimsy doors which open inward. To accomplish this feat requires a short running start to gain momentum and impact.

A third possibility is closed windows. Again it is essential to execute a forward roll on impact to avoid injury and maintain momentum. In the case of diving out , you will land on your hands which will collapse allowing the shoulders to take the brunt of the impact.

Diving through windows is not recommended, though it may be necessary if it cannot be compromised. In this event you should cross both arms over the head, to protect it, and dive forward. Extend the arms to break your fall once clear of the window, not before. Sufficient momentum must be generated to clear the window sill, as jagged glass in the frame will slash you. NEVER dive through large windows. The upper portion will fall and spear you before you can clear the space. In this case break the window first and then make your escape.

2. Drop Toe Hold

The following is employed when one is detained in the military frisk position.

( Enemy coming from left)- Note that the enemy hooks your leg with his left leg ready to sweep you should you resist. His left hand presses your back, locking his vertebrae and causing him to lift his pistol over his arm.

As pressure is applied to your back, tuck your arms in and twist to your left rear. Break this fall by seizing the enemy's right wrist, pulling him forward and turning the weapon to the outside. Land on your left hip, driving your left knee behind his left knee. Catch his left ankle with the crotch of your right knee. Performing the classic scissor take down. Drive your right palm up into his left hip socket. Watch the weapon as he may accidentally get off a shot.

Pull down and push up with your hands. Swing the enemy's body weight to the right slamming him into the wall, car .etc.

This technique must be executed with blinding speed.

3. Handcuff Switch

The enemy moves in and orders your hands atop your head. He moves into position behind you and reaches up to take your right arm into a hammer lock, needed to put on the cuffs.

The enemy pulls your arm behind your back. This is the best moment to attack since he has to either reach for his cuffs or holster his weapon. His attention will be distracted.

Step to the right with your foot, pivoting on the ball of the right foot, and reversing the enemy's wrist lock by lifting it over your head and seizing his arm. Slap the enemy weapon to the outside with left hand by crossing the body. This is known as a cross push block. If he has holstered his weapon, strike him in the rib cage as you turn.

Slide-step with the right foot, to a position even with the enemy. Step to his rear with your left foot, maintaining your grip on his wrist. Pull downward in a semi-circular arc with your right hand twisting the enemy's right arm into the hammer lock. Seize the enemy's left wrist from behind to prevent his executing a similar reverse.

4. Tearing Off The Finger

At a face off with the enemy, slap down with the right hand, clamping the pistol. Be sure that the web of the hand falls between the hammer and the firing pin, to prevent discharging a round, and the weapon must be deflected down and to the left side. Berrettas and the like also seize to work when the top slide is pushed back, with revolvers, holding the cylinder prevents it from turning and therefore firing.

Having grasped the pistol, twist the barrel back toward the enemy, trapping his finger in the trigger guard. If the enemy resists, which is probable, step back and pull down with the hands. The finger will dislocate at the knuckle and the finger can easily be torn off using the metal edges of the trigger guard.

5. Escape From a Headlock

From a right side head lock; Pinch the ulnar or radial nerve in the enemy's wrist to slightly release his grip. Turn to the enemy body. Reach up from behind with the left arm and clamp your hand over the enemy's mouth. Ensuring the top edge pushes into the philtrum, just below the nose, causing great pain should he resist. Step out and forward with your right leg, pivoting around and pulling the enemy round to the left. Drop to the right knee keeping the left knee pointed up drop the enemy down pulling his head past the knee. this will break his back and sometimes cause instant death.

6. Standing Switch

Should the enemy seize you about the waist in seeking to capture you, it's possible to reverse positions with him or escape by employing the standing switch.

As the waist cinch is secured, drive your left arm down along the inside of the enemy's knee. This locks his elbow between your hip and tricep. Toe-out with the left foot and drop the left shoulder.

Pivot on the ball of the foot, swinging the right leg for added momentum. This action will certainly break the waist cinch or dislocate the enemy's elbow. Step behind the enemy with your right foot, maintaining a grip on his thigh with your left hand. From here you may step behind with the left foot and cinch him, or slide up and apply the Japanese strangle.

7. Wheel Throw

Should the enemy seize you by both wrists, free your hands by rotating them to the outside line. Aim to break the enemy's grip were the thumb and index finger meet as this is the weakest point. Step forward with the left foot, striking with double palm heels to the enemy chest. This will drive him slightly back, breaking his balance to the rear. Grip the enemy lapels with both hands. If lapels are not available, cup both hands behind his head.

Maintaining your hold on the enemy, sit down near your left heel, pulling him forward and onto you, taking advantage of his natural reaction in trying to save himself from being pushed backward. Kick up with the right leg. Strike the enemy groin or Hara (diaphragm area).

Use your grip to the enemy to support him over you. This prevents his falling forward too fast and striking you with his head. Place the left foot in the enemy's Hara and push up strongly with both legs, lifting him off the ground.

Push the enemy clear allowing him to backfall to a head to head position above you. The impact alone of this fall is sufficient to drive the air from his lungs and incapacitate him. Using your grip on the enemy to maintain your momentum, execute a back roll swinging the feet overhead, tucking the head to one side, and pulling with both hands.

Completing the back roll, land the buttocks on the enemy chest, driving the sir from his lungs and crushing the chest cavity. With both knees landing on his biceps, rupturing the muscles, execute a palm heel strike to the chin, snapping his neck.

8. Twin Dragon Fist

* These techniques are used when the enemy is successful in cornering you and launches a fist attack. They result in the enemy's permanent blindness, making possible your escape.

Should the enemy throw a right arm punch, fall back slightly and counter with a mirror block. Your right arm comes across your body, palm inwards then pushes the enemy strike across his body as you come back across your own body. Twist the wrist to face palm out just before the strike connects. Aim for the wrist, thus striking the ulnar nerve and numbing the enemy arm.

Immediately grasp the enemy wrist, with the same hand, pulling him forward. As he looses balance and comes forward, extend the left hand palm down, with the index and middle fingers outstretched. This forms the Twin Dragon Fist. Do not stiffen the fingers as this will cause them to break on impact. Do not drive forward with the fingers, rather impale the enemy eyes onto them. No great amount of strength is require- only accuracy.

* If the enemy is more cautious and launches a left jab or hook, fall back slightly, executing a right shoulder block. The arm comes across to the left of your body palm Out. As it comes back across, as before, twist the wrist to face palm in, blocking the attack. Keep the arm bent. This attack strikes attacks the radial nerve. This action opens the enemy center line to attack.

Before the enemy's arm can be recovered from his left jab, strike out from the right arm with the Twin Dragon Fist, attacking the eyes. Imitate the action of a serpent attacking. Use the left arm to perform a depressing forearm block (push the enemy jab down with the left palm) pulling it slightly across the body to stop any counter attack.

EXPLOSIVES TECHNIQUES

Types Of Explosives

Explosives are normally classified into three categories, based on their use in munitions, as primary, booster and main charge explosives. The primary explosive is the most sensitive to initiation and is used to initiate the functioning sequence. The booster explosive is intermediate in sensitivity and is more readily initiated than the main charge. When in doubt about the classification of an explosive, it should always be treated as a primary or initiating explosive until tests have clearly defined its properties as being otherwise. This classification scheme has greatest validity when applied to pure explosive compounds. When dealing with explosive mixtures deviations will almost always occur.

Evaluation Of Explosive Compounds

A visual inspection of the structural formula of the compound - if that information is available - and a calculation of the oxygen balance will provide an initial clue concerning the probable hazard. Before more than 1 gram of a new explosive is handled, it is advisable that the following sequence of tests be performed, in the order given:

1) Match Flame Test
2) Differential Thermal Analysis
3) Thermogravimetric Analysis
4) Impact Sensitivity
5) Friction Sensitivity
6) Electrostatic Sensitivity
7) Explosion Temperature.

These tests are designed to determine whether the compound can be handled at all, and if so, with what care.

The sensitivity of a compound must be determined first. Not more than one gram of a solvent wet or dissolved explosive should be prepared because even this amount, if detonated in glass equipment, is sufficient to kill an unprotected person. Furthermore, if groups such as the azido, diazo, -N(Cl)NO2 are involved, the initial sample amount should be limited to 0.2 to 0.3 grams, and adequate safety precautions taken. It is advisable to keep the intial quantities wet and to remove and dry the small quantities required for each test - usually only a few milligrams. The match test is a qualtative but useful guide to the sensitivity of new compounds. For this test, approximately 10 mg of the compound is placed on the tip of a wooden handled spatula having a blade about an inch long, and the spatula is balanced over the edge of a suitable surface with the blade hanging over the edge. A small flame from a matchheld with a pair of tongs is then held below the blade about 2 cm from the sample. If the sample burns with flashing, or of detonation occurs, the material should be handled as an explosive. Never heat any substance in a closed container. Based on the resul of the match test, a DTA and TGA should be run on mg samples to determine their thermal stability. Steep exotherms should be taken as indications of explosive hazards. The impact sensitivity should be performed on one of the customary impact testers, using again milligram quantities of the material. Bureau of Mines values of 20 or less, or Ball Drop values of the order of 100 cm or less, or Picatinny Arsenal Impact Test values of 15 cm or less, all indicate that the explosive be treated as a primary exposive, in the class of Lead Azide or Mercury Fulminate. Such substances should be stored wet in conductive rubber containers and the quantities should be kept small.

Evaluation Of Explosive Mixtures

Compounds consisting of a standard explosive and intet additives have properties which are essentially those of the explosive. (Note that such additives may easily change friction or impact sensitivity). Before preparing sizable amounts of an explosive mixture, a sample must be subjected to the previously described sensitivity tests. The results will give a reasonably reliable basis for deciding whether an experimental explosive composition should be further evaluated.

Igniters And First Fires

Igniter powders are energetic materials which can react with destructive force. Under confinement, reaction is rapid and the hazard is increased from both the increased pressure and possible fragments which may result from bursting of the container. Igniter powders must burn and also have a very low brisance. These conditions limit such mixtures to combination of fuels and oxidants such as perchlorates, chlorates, nitrates, permanganates, oxides or peroxides mixed with sufur, charcoal or aromatic compounds such as naphthalene or oil. (Note that some chlorates will detonate, under the right conditions). Batches ranging form 1 to 1.5 g should be prepared for a preliminary evaluation of properties, as follows. All components except the oxygen carrier are placed on a conductive mat behind a barricade and mixed with a non-metallic spatula. Gloves should be worn to protect the hands. The oxygen carrier is then added, and the mixing is continued as before except that the mix is turned over with a spatula, rather than being rubbed. (I prefer the even better method of using the 'diaper/newspaper' method, where the mixture is rolled together by lifting alternate corners of the mixing sheet). Mixing is continued until the compositioon appears uniform to the eye, after which it is transferred to a conductive rubber container. If the preliminary composition is sufficiently insensitive to impact and if it has satisfactory low brisance, the next step is to prepare a lab batch of the explosive. This lot is blended by intimately mixing in a mortar, using a wooden or other non-metallic pestle, as in general metallic or porcelain pestles should be avoided. The oxygen carrier should alway be added last. If a meterial that inherently carries a static charge is used, it should be premixed with 2-3% of one of the inorganic components that does not build up a static charge. For example, sulfur carries a static charge, and in the ordinary Black Powder composition it is mixed with 2-3% potassium nitrate before it is incorporated into the main mixture. The presence of an inorganic salt facilitates the draining of the static charge. The preparation of such test lots should always be done by remote control, and personnel should not be allowed in the room while the mixer is in operation. Pressing operations must be conducted on a barricaded and grounded press, usually in a steel mold with a steel plunger using bronze plates between the plunger surfaces, for which non-sparking stainless steel is preferred. The side of the mold and the sides of the bronze plates should be cleaned before each pressing. Igniter powders should be screened in a well-ventilated area equipped with an explosion proof suction fan. Due to the flammability and explovive nature of the fine dust from igniter powders, no electric motors, hot plates or other electrical equipment should be operated near the powder being screened. For drying operations, steam heat is preferred over elecric ovens.

In summary, the following are the important points concerning safety in the prepartion of igniter powders:

1) Do not use metallic mixing tools 2) If foreign material is observed in the compostition before or during mixing, the batch should be destroyed by wetting with appropriate sovents, for even if large contaminants can be removed, one must always assume that the mix also contains finer particles that cannot be seen 3) compositions should not be mixed dry 4) Igniter powders should not be ground. When crushing of the powders is required, use a wooden or conductive pestle. Work with minimum quantities 5) screw cap or glass stoppered bottles should not be used 6) Precautions to avoid the build-up of static charges should be strictly observed.

Primary Explosive Compositions Primary explosives are the most sensitive of all chemical components in military ammo and hence the most hazardous to handle. Furthermore, single component primary explosives are frequently too hazardous to handle and mixtures are often used. Before the components of such a mixture are blended, the sensitivity, stability and compatibility must be tested. Reactivity increases with decreased particle size and increasing intimacy of contact. Because primary explosives are so sensitive, not more than 0.5 g should be prepared initially. If an compound forms a filter cake when being filtered, the cake should be broken up gently by means of a rubber policeman or wooden spatula with proper precautions in the form of shield and gloves. Filter cakes which cannot be broken up in this manner should be dissolved, recrystalized or reprecipitated to obtain a solid of more tractable form. Sensitive materials should be sieved wet. For all poerations, conductive rubber is the preferred material for confinement, followed by stainless steel, while glassware and porcelain should be avoided. In preparing the mixtures, the fuels and inert materials should be blended first, after which the oxidizer can be added. Initiating agents are added last, with the usual precautions followed: grounded personnel, relative humidity above 60%, and use of barricaded, remote controlled equipment. The high sensitivity of primary explosives must be kept in equipment. The high sensitivity of of primary explosives must be kept in mind when they are being transported. Small samples, of less than 1 g, should be packaged in "non-propogating" containers. These are so made that if one sample explodes, the shock will not initiate the others. Wet samples may be transported in larger quantities. Spontaneous detonations of primers had be reported, although the mechanism has not been established convincingly.

Pyrotechnical Compositions Pyrotechnic compostions are normally mixtures of finely powdered materials which, when ignited, will react and evolve a considerable amount of light, heat and smoke. Various organic binders and color intensifiers may be included in the mixtures. The heat of reaction of a pyrotechnic mixture may vary for 0.8 to 1 KJ/gm and temperatures of 1000 to 3500 deg C may result. More fatalities are experienced because of the effects of heat and flames than because of shock overpressure. Pyrotechnic compositions vary widely with respect to their sensitivity to impact, static discharge and friction. The main constituents in these compositions are:

1)oxidizing agents such as chlorates, perchlorates, peroxides, nitrates, oxides and chromates . 2) fuels such as powdered metals, silicon, sulfur and boron. 3) organic binders and color intensifiers.

Mixtures containing one or more of the above substances and an oxidizing agent form pyrotechnic compositions which are likely to be sensitive to impact and friction. Decreasing particle size of the fuel and addition of sulfur or red phosphorus generally increase sensitivity. Safety concerns of certain metallic ingredients were discussed under Material Handling Hazards.

The Handling Of Nitroglycerin

The manufacture of introglycerin (NG) and of other nitrate esters has been described elsewhere ..... (but not in this article). The principle concern in the handling of NG is the control of temp and PH. Spilled or contaminated material which is not suitable for use is absorbed in sawdust or Fuller's Earth, and burned in a remote facility. The hazardous material must remain segregated from other trash and handled only by trained personnel.

Biophysical Effects

Until WWII the primary interest in military explosves was in their function as fragment generators., whereas the lethal effects from blast waves were of lesser importance and which were not understood in a quantitative and theoretical sense. As the ability to deliver larger quantities of explosives improved, so did the ability to damage structures and personnel from blast overpressure. Overpressure effects on structures were examined in connection with the constructionof barriers and in the compilation of quantity-distance tables earlier in this article. (Not include by me). With respect to the biophysical effects, primary blast pathology is seen in the pulmonary system. This is very much due to the violent implosion of the body wall along with the internal pressure variations which follow the initial shock front. The high mortality amoung initial survivors is a measure of the lack of effective therapy for the injured. Indirect blast effects include the injuries caused by the impact of projectiles and fragments and by the consequences of whole body displacement, and the contact with thermal radiation and the ingestion of toxic materials. The biomedical criteria for the primary blast effects on humans are presented in Figure 3. The problem of calculating the magnitudes of the blast overpressures for various types of explosives as a function of their quantity and the distance from the source as well as the initial fragment velocities, has been presented with the assistance of nomograms and the tabulation of explosives characteristics (See J.Petes,"Blast and Fragmentation Characteristics" pp 283-316 in E.Cohen, Ed,"Prevention of and Protection Against Accidental Explosion of Munitions and Fuels and Other Hazardous Mixtures", Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 152, (Oct 1968).

OD MO/LD MO/LT


MO indicates Maximum Overpressure MPa

2 0.8 1.2 OD indicates Overpressure Duration in millisends 3 0.7 1.05 LD indicates that lung damage occurs 4 0.6 1 LT indicated 50% lethality 6 0.4 0.75 10 0.35 0.6 20 0.3 0.5 30 0.27 0.45 200 0.25 0.4

Safety Hazards Of Solid Propellants

One of the major problems associated with advanced solid propellants is their susceptibility to detonation. Motores containing such propellants must be necessarily be considered to be high explosive devices and as such they must be treated with attendant restrictions in handling, storage and transportation. Internal shear failure, shear failure at the propellant/casing interface, and tensile microfracturing due to frangibility are evidence of a potential problem. This increase in internal surface may be gradual, as due to age induced partial decomposition, or sudden as due to pressurization on ignition. Of particular concern is the presence of weakly bonded oxidizer particles such as HMX or ammonium perchlorate which act as crack starters under tensile stress. These cracks nucleate by debonding. When the propellant is suddenly stressed, these cracks are believed to grow at size dependent velocities until they coalesce to form fragments. During this process the internal surface to volume ratio increases abruptly. For instance, a recent study showed that a highly loaded modified composite propellant tensile stressed at a few hundred MPa with a duration of 1 usec produced about 2000m^2 of new surface per cubic meter of propellant. If these findings are correct, then the oxidizer particle size and the solids loading fraction are a measure of the size and the concentration of microcracks. Consequently much effort has been devoted to the development of new techniques for the study of microporosity. Earlier studied depended on X-ray examination, a method which does not flag a potential problem until cracks have grown to macroscopic size. More recently, ultrasonic damage measurements have been performed in uniaxial compression and shear tests. A quantitative model has been developed which has shown that estimates of the size of the vacuoles arising from the dewetting of simulated composite propellants are in excellent agreement with independent microscopic evidence. Time dependent void growth at constant strain has also been observed by ultrasonic techniques. In addition to the above microcracking phenomena, the avoidance of brittleness is a major concern in the formulation of propellants. Brittleness and frangibility is enhanced by high solids loading and by low temperature. At one time, it was believed that detonability was determined by burning rate. It must be understood clearly that high order detonation is a bulk phenomenon and is not governedby the classic propellant burning theories. The tendency to detonate is a characteristic intrinsic with each formulation which must be studied in shock environments as it is found in a card gap or flyer plate test or Susan and Wenograd tests. Likewise, density is not a useful measure of the detonability of a propellant except perhaps to the extent that low density formulations may be porous. A more valid measure of the safe-life of propellants is the depletion with time of stabilizers such as the nitroamines which are found in double base propellants or the loss of the plasticizer. Such determinations can now be performed routinely in a quantitative fashion by means of liquid chromatography.

Casings

Many high exlosives and all low explosives work best when properly confined. Most commercial fireworks have paper casings. One can roll black cat type firecrackers much like one would roll a cigerette joint. More substantial casings can be made by rolling paper around a dowel rod and gluing. Ends can be folded over and glued or plugged. Some people sell good paper casings. Expended model rocket engine casings work well. If a hole needs to be inserted for the fuse this should be done before adding the explosive. Fiber tape is safe and effective for re-enforcing casings. This tape is really strong in only one direction, so the casing should be wrapped twice so that the fibres cross. Cloth or plastic tape can help, too, but fiber tape is best. The charge should completely fill the casing. Most explosives work better when densely packed. The principle is to get the particles of explosive as close together as possible, so the whole charge will ignite as instantly as possible. The theoretically perfect casing is a sphere in which th charge is ignited at the center. Putting the fuse in the middle of a long casing, instead of at the end, can decrease burning time by 50%. In general, a stronger casing means a more pwoerful blast. The best casing is a steel pip with screwed on end caps. An expended carbon dioxide cartridge also makes a good casing. While paper casings are pretty safe, metal ones are prone to throw shrapnel. Any bomb with a metal casing should be respected as equivalent to a hand granade. Wrapping a small bomb in several layers of cloth will help to stop shrapnel. Metal can throw sparks, so pack it with a wooden rod. Other casings can be made from root beer extract bottles, olive jars, match cases, and stoneware clay. All of these casings worked with varying efficiency, and they all have the potential of throwing shrapnel. The clay casings contained about five grams of waxless Berge's Blasting powder. Pieces of clay became embedded in boards 5 feet away when it was tested.

Detonators

Many high explosives such as dynamite and TNT are insensitive enough as to require initiation by another explosive if they are to detonate properly. These explosives are detonated by blasting caps in all blasting operations. Blasting caps consist of a metal tube containing a sensitive high explosive like lead azide, tetryl, PETN, of lead styphnate, and either a fuse or electric firing device. The cap is inserted in the charge to be fired and detonated electically or with the fuse crimped into the end of the cap. Like any other explosive, blasting caps should be kept cool, and dry, and they should no be stored with other explosives. Electric caps are especially dangerous. When they are used in the ground they can be set off by stray electric currents from underground electric equipment or lousy insulation. The waves from nerby radio transmitters may set them off. Some blasting agents, like ammonium nitrate, are so difficult to detonate that they require a larger detonator than a blasting cap. They may be set off by a stick of dynamite which is in turn detonated by a blasting cap. The effeciency of many low explosives can be enhanced by using a booster charge similar to a detonator. A charge of some explosive like Berge's blasting powder can be set off very effectively by putting a small bomb, in the center. The fuse to the booster must be wrapped in several layers of tape, or similar, to prevent the main charge from going off first. This will result in a more instantaneous, more shattering, and louder explosion.

Electrical Detonators

It is neither difficult or infrequent for an individual to accumulate 10 milljoule or more of electrostatic energy on his person. This is considerably above the threshold for intitiation of a sensitive detonator. It is essential, therefore, to follow the safety procedures outlned below. If electric detononators are obtained without a device for shorting the metal case to the lead wires, they are to be removed from their containers and immediately wrapped with aluminum foil. Personnel, equipment and the detonator itself must be grounded during the handling of items whose lead wires are not shorted to each other or the metal case. Most commercial blasting is done electrically. An electric blasting cap contains a high resistance wire which heats and fires a sensitive explosive when current passes through it. This current is supplied by a hand generator or a battery. Model rocket manufacturers insist that the only safe way to set off model rocket engines is electically. Electric ignition is rather effective if it's done right. Instead of fuse, an uninsulated high resistance wire is placed inside the charge. This wire should be pretty short; a centimeter at the most. Highly conductive wires (like copper) should lead from the ends of this heating wire to the outside of the charge. You will need a minimum of six volts to fire this device. A car battery is good. If you want to be sure there is no power deficiency, you can plug it directly into an AC outlet, but one is usually not available. The wire iteslf explodes with a shower of sparks. Disconnect the system immediately after the blast to avoid blowing fuses or burning out wires. You can use electric ignition to set off several charges simultaneously. Connect them in parallel not in series. Remember, more charges means a need more current. You can get high resistance wires made of nicrome or some similar metal from old toasters, wire resisters, etc. Model rocket companies sell nichrome igniters.

Flares

Flares come in two basic kinds; illuminating and signalling. Signalling flares use some fuel as aluminum, magnesium, sugar, charcoal, or sulfur mixed with an oxygen provider like a nitrate or chlorate. A coloring agent can be added, or the oxidant can give color. A sodium compound gives yellow light, barium gives green, strontium gives red, and arsenic gives blue. Zinc dust gives a green light. Illuminating flares almost always use magnesium or aluminum. A 1: 1 mixture of aluminum dust with potassium nitrate makes a good bright flare, as well as being a decent flash powder. The composition can be stuck together and desensitised with soft wax, glycerine, oil, or anything that will stick. After was or any other desensitising binder is added, these compositions are hard to ignite, so igniting composition like gunpowder is needed.

Flash Powder

The essential ingrdient of flash powder is aluminum or magnesium dust, which burns very hot and bright. One part magnesium or aluminum mixed with one to two parts oxidizing agent such as potassium nitrate or potassium perchlorate makes good flash powder. The purpose of flash powder is to create a brilliant burst of light. It can also work as an explosive, so care must be taken. A trick used by many special effects crew to create a flash on stage is to remove the glass from the top of an electric fuse and fill the cavity with flash powder. The fuse is screwed into a socket, and when the socket is turned on the fuse blows and ignites the powder to create a bright and harmless flash.

Gasses

One can make rather impressive explosions with gasses. If you have an acetylene welding rig try this. Fill one balloon with oxygen, one with acetylene, and one with both gasses. Then touch a flame to each one. You should get a pop, a firery poof, and a BANG, respectively. Bombs can be made with containers (balloons, coffee cans, and the like) full of any flammable gas and air or oxygen. They are, naturally, bulky for their power and impractical for anything but non-pragmatic experiments. One method is to put calcium carbide in a metal can with a recloseable top. When you spit on the carbide it releases acetylene gas. You put the lid on and hold a match next to the holw which you have previously punched in the side of the can. This can result in a very satisfying bang. It can also conceivably result in flying pieces of tin can and body damage. Hydrogen is another very reactive gas. Hydrogen can be aquired by placing sulfuric acid on iron or steel, or hydrochloric acid on zinc or magnesium. It can also be created by placing sodium hydroxide solution on aluminum. Hydrogen is lighter than air, and it makes balloons float. Acetylene and natural gas float, too, but not as well.

Pyrotechnic Cement

This cement can be used where a fireproof adhesive or putty type mixture is required. Mix equal parts of calcium carbonate and zinc oxide. Thes can be stored indefinately after mixing. Then add sodium silicate soultion (water glass, obtainable in a few drug stores). This should be the concentrated syrup like consistency, not the watery kind used as a label adhesive. The consistency of the cement depends on how much sodium silicate is added. After this is added it will clump up and harden, it should be used soon. It is possible to water it down to make it runny, and it will come off if it is soaked in water.

Recrystallization

This technique is used to purify chemicals. The chemical is dissolved in a minimum amount of hot solvent. Then the solution is cooled and the chemical crystalizes out of solution. When it is filtered much of the impurities will stay in the solvent and be disposed of.

Smoke Bombs

There are many ways to make smoke bombs. A simple bunch of matches rolled up in a wad of paper can be effective. Flare mixture makes a reliable smoke bomb. A very potent smoke bomb can be made with carbon tetrachloride and zinc dust. Here is one formula: Carbon tetrachloride 40%


Zinc dust 40%

Potassium chlorate 20%

This has been found to be a rather unstable method. A similar formula is: Carbon tetrachloride 45%


Zinc Oxide 45%

Aluminum 10%

The reason these mixtures work so well is that ther form zinc chloride particles. These particles suck up water from the air to become larger and more opaque. Phosphorus is used in smoke bombs. It produces a white cloud of hygroscopic phosphorus pentoxide. Phosphorus is dangerous and expensive. It is easy to produce a cloud of harmless smoke by heating ammonium chloride over a flame. Ammonium chloride won't burn, but it decomposes easily when heated.

Spontaneous Combustion

Spontaneous combustion is well worth knowing about. A knowledge of spontaneous combustion can also prevent the experimental mixing of the wrong chemicals.

1. A few drops of glycerine placed onto a pile of potassium permanganate will burst into flames in a few seconds. 2. Lithium, sodium, and potassium will react violently with water to form a hydroxide and hydrogen gas. If the sodium is held in one place on the water, or if the piece is big enough, the hydrogen will ignite or explode. Potassium is more violent than sodium and invariably explodes on contact with water. These metals all float.

3. Sulfur 20% Zinc dust 40% Ammonium nitrate 20% Ammonium chloride 20%

This mixture will emit ammonia gas and catch fire when water is added. Bear in mind that ammonium nitrate is a deliquescent compound; that is, it sucks up water from the air. Therefore this mixture will go off if it is left uncapped on a humid day.

4. An Equal weight of aluminum dust and iodine crystals will ignite when water is added. 5. White phosphorous catches fire when it is exposed to warm air. Phosphorus can be dissolved in a small bottle of carbon disulfide. When the bottle is broken the carbon disulfide evaporates and the phosphorus ignites it. 6. Pyrophoric lead is a finely divided lead powder which ignites spontaneously in air, when it works. When it doesn't work it just sits there. It is made by decomposing lead tartrate by heating it in a test tube. Lead tartrate can be made by mixing solutions of lead acetate and tartaric acid. The precipitated lead tartrate can be filtered out and dried. 7. A mixture of potassium chlorate and a fuel such as sugar will ignite on contact with concentrated sulfuric acid.

Thermit

Thermit is a mixture of aluminum and iron oxide powder used in welding and incendiary devices. It is about: Iron Oxide 75%


Aluminum 25%

It burns with intense heat, leaving a mass of molten iron and aluminum oxide slag. A thermit bomb will burn through or melt just about anything. I heard of a bunch of vandalous fraternity members whom once set thermit bombs under the wheels of a trolly car, thereby welding it to the tracks. Thermit is hard to ignite and requires a hot igniting charge. I have found that the following mixture makes a fast burning fake thermite that is pretty easy to ignite:

Manganese dioxide 66.7%


Aluminum 33.3%

Magnesium or aluminum powder can react spontaneously with wet manganese dioxide, so a combination therefore, should not be stored. A nitrate is much safer as an oxidant.

Vacuum Distillation

A vacuum distillation apparatus is the essential apparatus for making pure nitric of perchloric acid. It is not hard to set up or use. With a hand vacuum pump from Edmund, Educational Modules, or some other company you can pull a sufficient vacuum to make pure nitric acid. A better pump is necessary to make the most concentrated fuming acid. Just create as much vacuum as possible with your pump, then start boiling. An all glass thermometer is preferable; especially when boiling acid. Very volatile liquids can be boiled this way at room temperature. This is safer for flammable chemicals then boiling them at atmospheric pressure.

Washing

Chemicals can be washed by dumping them into the washing liquid, usually water, and mixing them up. Then a solid can be filtered out or a liquid can be poured off after the liquid phases seperate. A solid can be left in filter paper in a funnel and washed by pouring water through the filter paper and chemical. Distilled water is preferable to tap water for synthesis and washing. Rain is a cheap source of fine distilled water.

Making Plastic Explosives from Bleach

Potassium chlorate is an extremely volatile explosive compound, and has been used in the past as the main explosive filler in grenades, land mines, and mortar rounds by such countries as France and Germany. Common household bleach contains a small amount of potassium chlorate, which can be extracted by the procedure that follows.

Firstly, you must obtain:

[1] A heat source (hot plate, stove, etc.) [2] A hydrometer, or battery hydrometer [3] A large Pyrex, or enameled steel container (to weigh chemicals) [4] Potassium chloride (sold as a salt substitute at health and nutrition stores)

Take one gallon of bleach, place it in the container, and begin heating it. While this solution heats, weigh out 63 grams of potassium chloride and add this to the bleach being heated. Constantly check the solution being heated with the hydrometer, and boil until you get a reading of 1.3. If using a battery hydrometer, boil until you read a FULL charge. Take the solution and allow it to cool in a refrigerator until it is between room temperature and 0 degrees Celcius. Filter out the crystals that have formed and save them. Boil this solution again and cool as before. Filter and save the crystals. Take the crystals that have been saved, and mix them with distilled water in the following proportions: 56 grams per 100 milliliters distilled water. Heat this solution until it boils and allow to cool. Filter the solution and save the crystals that form upon cooling. This process of purification is called "fractional crystalization". These crystals should be relatively pure potassium chlorate. Powder these to the consistency of face powder, and heat gently to drive off all moisture. Now, melt five parts Vaseline with five parts wax. Dissolve this in white gasoline (camp stove gasoline), and pour this liquid on 90 parts potassium chlorate (the powdered crystals from above) into a plastic bowl. Knead this liquid into the potassium chlorate until intimately mixed. Allow all gasoline to evaporate. Finally, place this explosive into a cool, dry place. Avoid friction, sulfur, sulfides, and phosphorous compounds. This explosive is best molded to the desired shape and density of 1.3 grams in a cube and dipped in wax until water proof. These block type charges guarantee the highest detonation velocity. Also, a blasting cap of at least a 3 grade must be used.

The presence of the afore mentioned compounds (sulfur, sulfides, etc.) results in mixtures that are or can become highly sensitive and will possibly decompose explosively while in storage. You should never store homemade explosives, and you must use EXTREME caution at all times while performing the processes in this article.

Generic Bomb

The generic bomb can be easily assembled at short notice and has approximately the power of half a stick of dynamite. Firstly, obtain the following:

1. Glass container 2. Gasoline/petrol 3. Potassium permanganate (available from snake bite kits)

Place a few drops of gasoline/petrol into the glass container, and replace the cap. Now turn the container around to coat the inner surfaces until the gas appears to have evaporated. Add a few drops of the potassium permanganate. The bomb is detonated by throwing against a solid object

Landmines

Firstly, you will need to aquire a pushbutton switch. Take the wires of it and connect one to a nine volt battery connector and the other to a solar igniter (used for launching model rockets). A very thin piece of fuse wire will also surfice. However, the igniter is recommended. Connect the other wire of the nine-volt battery to one end of the switch. Connect a wire from the switch to the other lead on the solar igniter.


switch-----------battery

\ /


\ /

\ /


solar igniter

|


explosive

Now connect the explosive to the igniter by attaching the fuse to the igniter (seal it with scotch tape). Now dig a hole; not too deep but enough to cover all of the materials. Think about what direction your enemy will be coming from and plant the switch, but leave the button visible (not too visible!). Plant the explosive about 3-5 feet away from the switch because there will be a delay in the explosion that depends on how short your wick is, and, if a homemade wick is being used, its burning speed. If it is construyed right, it will ahve the desired effect.

Remember: In a military situation a land mine is not used to kill. Rather, it is used to disable part of the platoon. The reasoning behind this is that - You can kill one man. OR You can disable one man, by removing his legs, and also disable two of the other group members as they will be required to transport the injured party.

Napalm

Napalm was used very frequently in the Vietnamese war by the Americans. It has a thick paste like consistency which produces a long lasting flame. Napalm is often used to attack buildings and vehicles. If it comes into contact with skin, or flesh, itis extremely difficult to remove and on most occasions must be left to burn out, removing flesh as it does so. Napalm is constructed in the following way:

1) Pour some gasolinepetrol into an old bowl, or some kind of container. 2) Take some styrofoam and put it in the gasoline/petrol, until the gas/petrol will not absorb anymore and becomes saturated. This should produce a sticky syrup. 3) Put it on the end of something and light.

The unused napalm lasts a long time!

Alternatively, napalm can be made in the following method:

1) Take one part gasoline and one part soap. The soap is either soap flakes or shredded bar soap. Do not use detergents. 2)The gasoline must be heated in order for the soap to melt. The best way is with a double boiler where the top part has at least a two-quart capicity. The water in the bottom part is brought to a boil and the double boiler is taken from the stove and carried to where there is no flame. 3)Then one part, by volume, of gasoline is put in the top part and allowed to heat as much as it will and the soap is added and the mess is stirred until it thickens. A better way to heat gasoline is to fill a bathtub with water as hot as you can get it. It will hold its heat longer and permit a much larger container than will the double boiler.

Ignition Devices

There are many ways to ignite explosive devices. There is the classic "light the fuse, throw the bomb, and run" approach, and there are sensitive mercury switches, and many things in between. Generally, electrical detonation systems are safer than fuses, but there are times when fuses are more appropriate than electrical systems; it is difficult to carry an electrical detonation system into a stadium, for instance, without being observed. A device with a fuse or impact detonating fuze would be easier to hide.

Fuse Ignition

The oldest form of explosive ignition, fuses are perhaps the favorite type of simple ignition system. By simply placing a piece of waterproof fuse in a device, one can have almost guaranteed ignition. Modern waterproof fuse is extremely reliable, burning at a rate of about 2.5 seconds to the inch. It is available as model rocketry fuse in most hobby shops, and costs about $3.00 for a nine-foot length. Cannon Fuse is a popular ignition system for pipe bombers because of its simplicity. All that need be done is light it with a match or lighter. Of course, if the Army had fuses like this, then the grenade, which uses fuse ignition, would be very impracticle. If a grenade ignition system can be acquired, by all means, it is the most effective. But, since such things do not just float around, the next best thing is to prepare a fuse system which does not require the use of a match or lighter, but still retains its simplicity. One such method is described below:

MATERIALS _________ strike-on-cover type matches electrical tape or duct tape waterproof fuse

) To determine the burn rate of a particular type of fuse, simply measure a 6 inch or longer piece of fuse and ignite it. With a stopwatch, press the start button the at the instant when the fuse lights, and stop the watch when the fuse reaches its end. Divide the time of burn by the length of fuse, and you have the burn rate of the fuse, in seconds per inch. This will be shown below:

Suppose an eight inch piece of fuse is burned, and its complete time of combustion is 20 seconds.

20 seconds / 8 inches = 2.5 seconds per inch.

If a delay of 10 seconds was desired with this fuse, divide the desired time by the number of seconds per inch:

10 seconds / 2.5 seconds per inch = 4 inches

NOTE: THE LENGTH OF FUSE HERE MEANS LENGTH OF FUSE TO THE POWDER. SOME FUSE, AT LEAST AN INCH, SHOULD BE INSIDE THE DEVICE. ALWAYS ADD THIS EXTRA INCH, AND PUT THIS EXTRA INCH AN INCH INTO THE DEVICE!!!

2) After deciding how long a delay is desired before the explosive device is to go off, add about 1/2 an inch to the premeasured amount of fuse, and cut it off. 3) Carefully remove the cardboard matches from the paper match case. Do not pull off individual matches; keep all the matches attached to the cardboard base. Take one of the cardboard match sections, and leave the other one to make a second igniter. 4) Wrap the matches around the end of the fuse, with the heads of the matches touching the very end of the fuse. Tape them there securely, making sure not to put tape over the match heads. Make sure they are very secure by pulling on them at the base of the assembly. They should not be able to move. 5) Wrap the cover of the matches around the matches attached to the fuse, making sure that the striker paper is below the match heads and the striker faces the match heads. Tape the paper so that is fairly tight around the matches. Do not tape the cover of the striker to the fuse or to the matches. Leave enough of the match book to pull on for ignition.


_____________________

\ /


\ / ------ match book cover

\ /


| M|f|M----------|------- match head

| A|u|A |


| T|s|T |

| C|e|C |


| tapeH|. |Htape |

| |f | |


|####### |u| #######|-------- striking paper

|####### |s| #######|


\ |e| /

\ |.| /


\ |f| /

\ |u| /


|tape |s|tape|

|tape |e|tape|


| . |

| f |


| u |

| s |


| e |

| . |


|___|

The match book is wrapped around the matches, and is taped to itself. The matches are taped to the fuse. The striker will rub against the matcheads when the match book is pulled.

6) When ready to use, simply pull on the match paper. It should pull the striking paper across the match heads with enough friction to light them. In turn, the burning matcheads will light the fuse, since it adjacent to the burning match heads.

Blackmatch Fuses

Take a flat piece of plastic or metal (brass or aluminum are easy to work with and won't rust). Drill a 1/16th inch hole through it. This is your die for sizing the fuse. You can make fuses as big as you want, but this is the right size for the pipe bomb I will be getting to later. To about 1/2 cup of black powder add water to make a thin paste. Add 1/2 teaspoon of corn starch. Cut some one foot lengths of cotton thread. Use cotton, not silk or thread made from synthetic fibers. Put these together until you have a thickness that fills the hole in the die but can be drawn through very easily. Tie your bundle of threads together at one end. Separate the threads and hold the bundle over the black powder mixture. Lower the threads with a circular motion so they start curling onto the mixture. Press them under with the back of a teaspoon and continue lowering them so they coil into the paste. Take the end you are holding and thread it through the die. Pull it through smoothly in one long motion. To dry your fuse, lay it on a piece of aluminum foil and bake it in your 250 degree oven or tie it to a grill in the oven and let it hang down. The fuse must be baked to make it stiff enough for the uses it will be put to later. Air drying will not do the job. If you used Sodium Nitrate, it will not even dry completely at room temperatures. Cut the dry fuse with sissors into 2 inch lengths and store in an air tight container. Handle this fuse carefuly to avoid breaking it. You can also use a firecracker fuse if you have any available. The fuses can usually be pulled out without breaking. To give yourself some running time, you will be extending these fuses (blackmatch or firecracker fuse) with sulfured wick.

Finally, it is possible to make a relatively slow-burning fuse in the home. By dissolving about one teaspoon of black powder in about 1/4 a cup of boiling water, and, while it is still hot, soaking in it a long piece of all cotton string, a slow-burning fuse can be made. After the soaked string dries, it must then be tied to the fuse of an explosive device. Sometimes, the end of the slow burning fuse that meets the normal fuse has a charge of black powder or gunpowder at the intersection point to insure ignition, since the slow-burning fuse does not burn at a very high temperature. A similar type of slow fuse can be made by taking the above mixture of boiling water and black powder and pouring it on a long piece of toilet paper. The wet toilet paper is then gently twisted up so that it resembles a firecracker fuse, and is allowed to dry.

Sulfured Wick

Use heavy cotton string about 1/8th inch in diameter. You can find some at a garden supply for tieing up your tomatoes. Be sure it's cotton. You can test it by lighting one end. It sould continue to burn after the match is removed and when blown out will have a smoldering coal on the end. Put some sulfur in a small container like a small pie pan and melt it in the oven at 250 degrees. It will melt into a transparent yellow liquid. If it starts turning brown, it is too hot. Coil about a one foot length of string into it. The melted sulfur will soak in quickly. When saturated, pull it out and tie it up to cool and harden. It can be cut to desired lengths with sissors. 2 inches is about right. These wicks will burn slowly with a blue flame and do not blow out easily in a moderate wind. They will not burn through a hole in a metal pipe, but are great for extending your other fuse. They will not throw off sparks. Blackmatch generates sparks which can ignite it along its length causing unpredictable burning times.

Impact Ignition

Impact ignition is an excellent method of ignition for spontaneous terrorist activities. The problem with an impact-detonating device is that it must be kept in a very safe container so that it will not explode while being transported to the place where it is to be used. This can be done by having a removable impact initiator. The best and most reliable impact initiator is one that uses factory made initiators or primers. A no. 11 cap for black powder firearms is one such primer. They usually come in boxes of 100, and cost about $2.50. To use such a cap, however, one needs a nipple that it will fit on. Black powder nipples are also available in gun stores. All that a person has to do is ask for a package of nipples and the caps that fit them. Nipples have a hole that goes all the way through them, and they have a threaded end, and an end to put the cap on. A cutaway of a nipple is shown below:


__________________

| |


_ | |

| | |/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\|


__________| |/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/ |

| _____________|


| |

no. 11 |_______| percussion _______ ------- threads for screwing cap : here |_____________ nipple onto bomb


|______ |

| |\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/|


| _| |/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/ |

| |


|___________________|

When making using this type of initiator, a hole must be drilled into whatever container is used to make the bomb out of. The nipple is then screwed into the hole so that it fits tightly. Then, the cap can be carried and placed on the bomb when it is to be thrown. The cap should be bent a small amount before it is placed on the nipple, to make sure that it stays in place. The only other problem involved with an impact detonating bomb is that it must strike a hard surface on the nipple to set it off. By attaching fins or a small parachute on the end of the bomb opposite the primer, the bomb, when thrown, should strike the ground on the primer, and explode. Of course, a bomb with mercury fulminate in each end will go off on impact regardless of which end it strikes on, but mercury fulminate is also likely to go off if the person carrying the bomb is bumped hard.

Magicube Igniter

A VERY SENSITIVE and reliable impact iniator can be produced from the common MAGICUBE ($2.40 for 12) type flashbulbs. Simply crack the plastic cover off, remove the reflector, and you will see 4 bulbs, each of which has a small metal rod holding it in place. CAREFULLY grasp this rod with a pair of needle-nose pliers, and pry gently upwards, making sure that NO FORCE IS APPLIED TO THE GLASS BULB. Each bulb is coated with plastic, which must be removed for them to be effective in our application. This coating can be removed by soaking the bulbs in a small glass of acetone for 30-45 minutes, at which point the plastic can be easily peeled away. The best method to use these is to dissolve some nitrocellulose based smokeless powder in acetone and/or ether, forming a thich glue-like paste. Coat the end of the fuse with this paste, then stick the bulb (with the metal rod facing out) into the paste. About half the bulb should be completely covered, and if a VERY THIN layer of nitrocellulose is coated over the remainder then ignition should be very reliable. To insure that the device lands with the bulb down, a small streamer can be attached to the opposite side, so when it is tossed high into the air the appropriate end will hit the ground first.

Electrical Ignition

Electrical ignition systems for detonation are usually the safest and most reliable form of ignition. Electrical systems are ideal for demolition work, if one doesn't have to worry so much about being caught. With two spools of 500 ft of wire and a car battery, one can detonate explosives from a "safe", comfortable distance, and be sure that there is nobody around that could get hurt. With an electrical system, one can control exactly what time a device will explode, within fractions of a second. Detonation can be aborted in less than a second's warning, if a person suddenly walks by the detonation sight, or if a police car chooses to roll by at the time. The two best electrical igniters are military squibs and mode 1 rocketry igniters. Blasting caps for construction also work well. Model rocketry igniters are sold in packages of six, and cost about $1.00 per pack. All that need be done to use them is connect it to two wires and run a current through them. Military squibs are difficult to get, but they are a little bit better, since they explode when a current is run through them, whereas rocketry igniters only burst into flame. Most squibs will NOT detonate KClO3/petroleum jelly or RDX. This requires a blasting cap type detonation in most cases. There are, however, military explosive squibs which will do the job. Igniters can be used to set off black powder, mercury fulminate, or guncotton, which in turn, can set of a high order explosive.

An Electric Fuze

Take a flashlight bulb and place it glass tip down on a file. Grind it down on the file until there is a hole in the end. Solder one wire to the case of the bulb and another to the center conductor at the end. Fill the bulb with black powder or powdered match head. One or two flashlight batteries will heat the filament in the bulb causing the powder to ignite.

Alternative Electric Fuze

Take a medium grade of steel wool and pull a strand out of it. Attach it to the ends of two pieces of copper wire by wrapping it around a few turns and then pinch on a small piece of solder to bind the strand to the wire. You want about 1/2 inch of steel strand between the wires. Number 18 or 20 is a good size wire to use. Cut a 1/2 by 1 inch piece of cardboard of the type used in match covers. Place a small pile of powdered match head in the center and press it flat. place the wires so the steel strand is on top of and in contact with the powder. Sprinkle on more powder to cover the strand. The strand should be surounded with powder and not touching anything else except the wires at its ends. Place a piece of blackmatch in contact with the powder. Now put a piece of masking tape on top of the lot, and fold it under on the two ends. Press it down so it sticks all around the powder. The wires are sticking out on one side and the blackmatch on the other. A single flashlight battery will set this off.

Electro-Mechanical Ignition

Electro-mechanical ignition systems are systems that use some type of mechanical switch to set off an explosive charge electrically. This type of switch is typically used in booby traps or other devices in which the person who places the bomb does not wish to be anywhere near the device when it explodes. Several types of electro-mechanical detonators will be discussed

Mercury Switches

Mercury switches are a switch that uses the fact that mercury metal conducts electricity, as do all metals, but mercury metal is a liquid at room temperatures. A typical mercury switch is a sealed glass tube with two electrodes and a bead of mercury metal. It is sealed because of mercury's nasty habit of giving off brain-damaging vapors. The diagram below may help to explain a mercury switch.


______________

A / \ B __wire +_____/___________ \


\ ( Hg ) | /

\ _(_Hg___) |____/


|

|


wire - |

|


|

When the drop of mercury ("Hg" is mercury's atomic symbol) touches both contacts, current flows through the switch. If this particular switch was in its present position, A---B, current would be flowing, since the mercury can touch both contacts in the horizontal position. If, however, it was in the | position, the drop of mercury would only touch the + contact on the A side. Current, then couldn't flow, since mercury does not reach both contacts when the switch is in the vertical position. This type of switch is ideal to place by a door. If it were placed in the path of a swinging door in the verticle position, the motion of the door would knock the switch down, if it was held to the ground by a piece if tape. This would tilt the switch into the verticle position, causing the mercury to touch both contacts, allowing current to flow through the mercury, and to the igniter or squib in an explosive device.

Tripwire Switches

A tripwire is an element of the classic booby trap. By placing a nearly invisible line of string or fishing line in the probable path of a victim, and by putting some type of trap there also, nasty things can be caused to occur. If this mode of thought is applied to explosives, how would one use such a tripwire to detonate a bomb. The technique is simple. By wrapping the tips of a standard clothespin with aluminum foil, and placing something between them, and connecting wires to each aluminum foil contact, an electric tripwire can be made, If a piece of wood attached to the tripwire was placed between the contacts on the clothespin, the clothespin would serve as a switch. When the tripwire was pulled, the clothespin would snap together, allowing current to flow between the two pieces of aluminum foil, thereby completing a circuit, which would have the igniter or squib in it. Current would flow between the contacts to the igniter or squib, heat the igniter or squib, causing it it to explode. Make sure that the aluminum foil contacts do not touch the spring, since the spring also conducts electricity.

Radio Control Detonators

With a good radio detonator, one can be several miles away from the device, and still control exactly when it explodes, in much the same way as an electrical switch. The problem with radio detonators is that they are rather costly. However, there could possibly be a reason that a terrorist would wish to spend the amounts of money involved with a RC (radio control) system and use it as a detonator. If such an individual wanted to devise an RC detonator, all he would need to do is visit the local hobby store or toy store, and buy a radio controlled toy. Taking it back to his/her abode, all that he/she would have to do is detach the solenoid/motor that controls the motion of the front wheels of a RC car, or detach the solenoid/motor of the elevators/rudder of a RC plane, or the rudder of a RC boat, and re-connect the squib or rocket engine igniter to the contacts for the solenoid/motor. The device should be tested several times with squibs or igniters, and fully charged batteries should be in both he controller and the receiver (the part that used to move parts before the device became a detonator).

Delays

A delay is a device which causes time to pass from when a device is set up to the time that it explodes. A regular fuse is a delay, but it would cost quite a bit to have a 24 hour delay with a fuse. This section deals with the different types of delays that can be employed by a terrorist who wishes to be sure that his bomb will go off, but wants to be out of the country when it does.

Fuse Delays

It is extremely simple to delay explosive devices that employ fuses for ignition. Perhaps the simplest way to do so is with a cigarette. An average cigarette burns for between 8-11 minutes. The higher the "tar" and nicotine rating, the slower the cigarette burns. Low "tar" and nicotine cigarettes burn quicker than the higher "tar" and nicotine cigarettes, but they are also less likely to go out if left unattended, i.e. not smoked. Depending on the wind or draft in a given place, a high "tar" cigarette is better for delaying the ignition of a fuse, but there must be enough wind or draft to give the cigarette enough oxygen to burn. People who use cigarettes for the purpose of delaying fuses will often test the cigarettes that they plan to use in advance to make sure they stay lit and to see how long it will burn. Once a cigarettes burn rate is determined, it is a simple matter of carefully putting a hole all the way through a cigarette with a toothpick at the point desired, and pushing the fuse for a device in the hole formed. Filter Hole for fuse


\ ______________|_________________________________

\ | | O ] ------- light this end |___________|____________________________________]

Timer Delays

Timer delays, or "time bombs" are usually employed by an individual who wishes to threaten a place with a bomb and demand money to reveal its location and means to disarm it. Such a device could be placed in any populated place if it were concealed properly. There are several ways to build a timer delay. By simply using a screw as one contact at the time that detonation is desired, and using the hour hand of a clock as the other contact, a simple timer can be made. The minute hand of a clock should be removed, unless a delay of less than an hour is desired. The main disadvantage with this type of timer is that it can only be set for a maximum time of 12 hours. If an electronic timer is used, such as that in an electronic clock, then delays of up to 24 hours are possible. By removing the speaker from an electronic clock, and attaching the wires of a squib or igniter to them, a timer with a delay of up to 24 hours can be made. All that one has to do is set the alarm time of the clock to the desired time, connect the leads, and go away. This could also be done with an electronic watch, if a larger battery were used, and the current to the speaker of the watch was stepped up via a transformer. This would be good, since such a timer could be extremely small. The timer in a VCR (Video Cassette Recorder) would be ideal. VCR's can usually be set for times of up to a week. The leads from the timer to the recording equipment would be the ones that an igniter or squib would be connected to. Also, one can buy timers from electronics stores that would be work well. Finally, one could employ a digital watch, and use a relay, or electro-magnetic switch to fire the igniter, and the current of the watch would not have to be stepped up.

Chemical Delays

Chemical delays are uncommon, but they can be extremely effective in some cases. These were often used in the bombs the Germans dropped on England. The delay would ensure that a bomb would detonate hours or even days after the initial bombing raid, thereby increasing the terrifying effect on the British citizenry. If a glass container is filled with concentrated sulfuric acid, and capped with several thicknesses of aluminum foil, or a cap that it will eat through, then it can be used as a delay. Sulfuric acid will react with aluminum foil to produce aluminum sulfate and hydrogen gas, and so the container must be open to the air on one end so that the pressure of the hydrogen gas that is forming does not break the container.


_ _

| | | |


| | | |

| | | |


| |__________________| |

| | | |


| | sulfuric | |

| | | |


| | acid | |

| | | |---------- aluminum foil


| |__________________| | (several thicknesses)

|____________________|

The aluminum foil is placed over the bottom of the container and secured there with tape. When the acid eats through the aluminum foil, it can be used to ignite an explosive device in several ways.

1) Sulfuric acid is a good conductor of electricity. If the acid that eats through the foil is collected in a glass container placed underneath the foil, and two wires are placed in the glass container, a current will be able to flow through the acid when both of the wires are immersed in the acid. 2) Sulfuric acid reacts very violently with potassium chlorate. If the acid drips down into a container containing potassium chlorate, the potassium chlorate will burst into flame. This flame can be used to ignite a fuse, or the potassium chlorate can be the igniter for a thermite bomb, if some potassium chlorate is mixed in a 50/50 ratio with the thermite, and this mixture is used as an igniter for the rest of the thermite. 3) Sulfuric acid reacts with potassium permangenate in a similar way.

POISONS

The first and probably least known way to eliminate someone is through the use of various herbal extracts

Diffenbachia: (dumbcane)

Take 2 leaves and boil in water (don't inhale the fumes) When the water becomes a greenish color: Take the leaves and throw them away. Now take the liquid and add it to the subjetcs food or drink.

Ethylene Glycol:

Ethylene Glycol is simply antifreeze such as Prestone, Zerex, etc. It has a sweetish-like taste to it and can be easily concealed in a bowl of punch, or someone's soft drink. At a party, ethylene glycol can be easily poured from a container such as a kool-aid pitcher into the party punch. Be sure it is mixed with a package of kool-aid or something so that you don't arouse any suspicion. The lethal dosage of this is about four ounces and death incuring effects resemble the characteristics of drunkeness.

Oleander:

Take a twig of this bush and grid it into a fine powder. Place the powder in the salt shaker or substitute it for any other within 3-4 hours. Sometimes quicker.

Poison Oak/Ivy

Take the leaves and either grind into a powder or boil until the water turns a brownish/green color. Then add a few drops or grams to a victims beverage. It tends to destroy a victims vocal cords

Nicotine

Nicotine is an abundant poison. Easily found in tobacco products, in concentrated form a few drops can quickly kill someone. Here is how to concentrate it:

First aquire a can of chewing tobacco, pipe tobacco or snuff. Remove the contents and soak in water overnight in a jar (about 2/3 cup of water). In the morning, strain into another jar the mixture through a porous towel. Then wrap the towel around the ball of tobacco and squeeze it until all of the liquid is in the jar. The tabacco is no longer needed and can be disposed of.

One of two options can be introduced. The first makes the nicotine more potent: 1. Allow to evaporate until a sticky syrup results in the jar. This is almost pure nicotine. 2. Heat over low flame until water is evaporated and a thick sticky syrup results.

Now all you have to do, when you wish to use it, is to put a few drops in a medicine dropper or equivalent, and slip about 4 or 5 drops into the victim's coffee. Coffee is recommended since it will disguise the taste. Since nicotine is a drug, the victim should get quite a buzz before they are truely disposed of.

Note: If the syrup is too sticky, it can be diluted with a few drops of water.

Nicotine Sulfate This is a very interesting poison. It is obtained as an insect poison found under several names. One of the most common is Black Leaf 40, found at any garden store. It is 40% nicotine sulfate. It is most effective if it is evaporated to a thin syrup. The interesting thing about nicotine sulfate is that it is absorbed through the skin. An effective way to use this is to carry it around in a soft drink then "accidentally" spill on intended subject. If they do not wash it off in a matter of seconds they will be dead in a matter of minutes. Most likely, the victim will just forget about it if he thinks it is just a soft drink.

Vinegar Poison

This is a very simple poison to make with almost no materials needed. Take a lead or copper container and store vinegar in it for a long time it will then turn to into a deadly poison.

Visine

Aqiure eye drops called visine and put 2 or 3 drops in someone's drink. About 15 minutes they will let out loud, wet, explosive bursts from their ass. It won't end their life, but it may ruin their social life.

Carbon Tetrachloride

Carbon Tetrachloride can be easily obtained from fire extinguishers or grease cleaning fluids found in auto supply stores. Carbon Tetrachloride is used in making phosgene gas which is highly lethal and was used in World War I. The gas is made by heating carbon tetrachloride over a flame or hot plate. It is only effective in a closed room. A good way to utilize this is to set a pan full of it on a heater. People seeing it will just think its water often placed on heaters to keep the air from being too dry. Carbon tetrachloride has the smell of musty hay and will most likely be ignored or someone will bring there can of lysol and spray the air with it.

Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrocyanic acid (Prussic Acid) is one of the most poisonous compounds known. It is quite simple to prepare and is extremely deadly. A good way to use this is to put it in a water piston. Use a newspaper and proceed to walk pass the victim as you read the newspaper. When you near the subject squirt them in the face and continue walking. Before they realize they have been attacked they will fall unconscious. Within three minutes they will be dead. To start the process you will need the following items:

Potassium Ferrocyanide This can be stolen from your school lab or


purchased from a chemical supply house.

Distilled Water Found at your common grocery store

Sulfuric Acid Can be obtained by emptying the watery contents from a car battery and boiling it in


a glass container until thick white fumes appear or you steal it from your school lab.

Calcium Chloride Can be obtained by breaking up chalk and letting it soak in hydrochloric acid (obtained


at a hardware store) and then drying it.

Measure out 15 parts of potassium ferrocyanide and dump it into a flask. Next add 9 parts of distilled water and 9 parts of strong sulfuric acid (pour the acid slowly). Then take another flask and put in some coarse fragments of calcium chloride.

Plastic tubing (obtained from a tropical fish store) is ran from the acid, potassium, water mixture into a bucket full of ice and water. A small hole is cut near the bottom of the bucket just barely enough to fit the plastic tubing into so that the icy water does not leak. Then the tubing is lead into the flask containing the calcium chloride where the final product will be collected. Start by heating the acid, potassium, water mixture at a low temp, be sure to watch it as it may boil over the top. When the liquid covers the potassium chloride the action is stopped and the apparatus is allowed to cool. The liquid is put into a container with a good stopper.

Light and air cause hydro-cyanic acid to lose its potency. The container should be wrapped in foil and stored in a refrigerating device. A few drops of hydrochloric acid will help preserve your cyanic acid.

Nerve Gas

These nerve gasses cause a sudden loss of sense of muscular control. A large dose is instantaneously fatal. Hydrogen cyanide can be dissolved in water to make hydrocyanide acid which is very poisonous and has a bitter almond smell. If these gasses are to be made, it should be done outside or under a laboratory hood.

Hydrogen cyanide can be made by adding sulfuric acid to sodium cyanide.

Cyanogen gas, can be made by adding sodium cyanide solution to coppper sulfate solution.

All cyanides are very poisonous. Avoid getting the slightest smell of these gasses, if any smell is detected, abandon production and evacuate the area immediately.

COMMUNICATIONS

It times of distress, capture or disaster, the assasin will be required to use so tool of communication. As well as on the street for information gathering purposes, aquiring goods and the like. This following section will give a basic out line on hte construction and use of a small number of communication apperatus that may be useful to the assasin.

The Red Box

The red box is a common tool of the underground. It consists of a small device that provides a number of tones for the purpose of accessing phone systems without the need of money.

A red box can be made in a number of ways, one such method is;

To acquire a Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) pocket tone dialer with memory. A 6.5536Mhz crystal will also be required.

The tone dialer is carefully opened up and the crystal is removed. The crystal looks like a small silver cylindrical type device. This crystal is then replaced with the 6.5536Mhz crystal.

The tone dialer is then reasembled and the batteries are placed in the respective compartment.

The tone dialer usually requires a power source of 3x 1.5 volts, often in the form of 3x 1.5v batteries size AAA. Although these can be substituted by use of an equal power source and some wire.

The Button *, will provide the respective tones to acquire the coin totals as follows:

* A nickle ** A dime *** A quarter

The UK buttons are not known at present, but will be added as soon as they are discovered.

Alternatively, the assasin may make a red box by recording the tones from a computer program onto a small dictaphone or similar recording device. The tone generating computer program (Cyberphreak - by CyberDemon), for both US and UK tones, can be accessed from the following internet address. http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~davegraham/ukarena/ukindex.htm

The Beige Box

Beiging is the simplest and most effective form of phreaking known to mankind. Follows is the construction of the beige box:

1. Acquire a cheap type of phone. Try to get one which has the lead going in and out of the phone, not in the base and then from the base to the phone. Also look for PABX compatability, ringer on/off, tone/pulse dialing. 2. Cut the phone wire about 25cm from the wall jack and strip the 3 individual wires. The wires are fiddly, so try it out first. Leave a bit of the coating on so you know which wire connects where. 3. Attach 3 clips to the wires on the phone end by soldering or crimping them on. 4. Connect them to their counterparts and plug in to any socket. You should hear a tone. 5. By experiment you should find that only two wires need to be connected to get a tone. Get rid of the third clip.

The construction is now complete.

Find a PCP/cab box. These are the green ones found in residential areas standing about 1m tall. Use a 13mm hex wrench to open it up. Keep the bolts to put back on later so you can use it again. Look for the BT socket like any other socket, plug in, and dial. Otherwise there is 1 screw in each corner and wires connected up to them. Hook up the clips to the top set or the bottom set. Don't call anyone you know, but dial up boards, scan, wardial, long distance, 0891, etc. You are using someone else's line and they will notice on the bill. When you've finished, bolt up the PCP box so you can use it again. You can also use domestic lines and payphone lines. Just cut into the wire and attach the beige wires around, either with the crocs, or by winding them round for good connection. Try train stations, schools and universities, hospitals, Debenhams (both using COCOTs connected to standard BT sockets!)

NOTE: If instead of a dial tone you hear nothing, adjust the alligator clips so that they are not touching each other terminals. Also make sure they are firmly attached. By this time you should hear a dial tone. Dial ANI to find out the number you are using.

Practical Applications:

Phone taps Long distance, static free phone calls Dialing direct to Alliance Teleconferencing (also no static)

The Lunch Box

Introduction

he Lunch Box is a very simple transmitter which can be handy for all sorts of things. It is quite small and can easily be put in a number of places. It can be used for tapping phones, getting inside info, blackmail and other such things. The possibilities are endless. I will also include the plans or an equally small receiver for your newly made toy. Use it for just about anything. You can also make the transmitter and receiver together in one box and use it as a walkie talkie.

Materials

(1) 9 volt battery with battery clip (1) 25-mfd, 15 volt electrolytic capacitor (2) .0047 mfd capacitors (1) .022 mfd capacitor (1) 51 pf capacitor (1) 365 pf variable capacitor (1) Transistor antenna coil (1) 2N366 transistor (1) 2N464 transistor (1) 100k resistor (1) 5.6k resistor (1) 10k resistor (1) 2meg potentiometer with SPST switch Some good wire, solder, soldering iron, board to put it on, box (optional)

Schematic for The Lunch Box

This may get a tad confusing but just print it out and pay attention.


[ ! ]

!


51 pf

! -----+----- -----------------base collector ! )( 2N366 +---------+-------------/\/\/----GND 365 pf () emitter ! ! )( ! ! +----------- ---+------------ ! ! ! ! ! ! ! GND / .022mfd ! !


10k\ ! ! !

/ GND +------------------------------------------emitter


! ! ! 2N464

/ .0047 ! base collector


2meg \-------+ ! ! +------------+ !

/ ! GND ! ! !


GND ! ! !

+-------------------------+.0047+-----------------------------+ ! !


! +------25mfd-----+

------------------------------------------------------------------------+ ! ! microphone +-------/\/\/------+


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 100k !

!


GND---------------->/<--------------------------------------!+!+!+---------------------------------+ switch Battery from 2meg pot. Notes about the schematic 1. GND means ground 2. The GND near the switch and the GND by the 2meg potentiometer should be connected. 3. Where you see: )( () )( it is the transistor antenna coil with 15 turns of regular hook-up wire around it. 4. The middle of the loop on the left side (the left of "()") you should run a wire down to the "+" which has nothing attached to it. There is a .0047 capacitor on the correct piece of wire. 5. For the microphone use a magnetic earphone (1k to 2k). 6. Where you see "[!]" is the antenna. Use about 8 feet of wire to broadcast approx 300ft. Part 15 of the FCC rules and regulation says you can't broadcast over 300 feet without a license. (Hahaha). Use more wire for an antenna for longer distances. (Attach it to the black wire on the fone line for about a 250 foot antenna!) Operation of the Lunch Box This transmitter will send the signals over the AM radio band. You use the variable capacitor to adjust what freq. you want to use. Find a good unused freq. down at the lower end of the scale and you're set. Use the 2 meg pot. to adjust gain. Just fuck with it until you get what sounds good. The switch on the 2meg is for turning the Lunch Box on and off. When everything is adjusted, turn on an AM radio adjust it to where you think the signal is. Have a friend lay some shit thru the Box and tune in to it. That's all there is to it. The plans for a simple receiver are shown below: The Lunch Box receiver (1) 9 volt battery with battery clip (1) 365 pf variable capacitor (1) 51 pf capacitor (1) 1N38B diode (1) Transistor antenna coil (1) 2N366 transistor (1) SPST toggle switch (1) 1k to 2k magnetic earphone Schematic for receiver [ ! ] ! 51 pf ! +-------+------+ ! ! ) 365 pf (--------+ ! ) ! ! +-------+-----GND ! +-------*>!----------base collector-----------


diode 2N366 earphone

emitter +-------


! !

GND !


-

+


- battery

+


GND-------->/<---------------------+ switch Closing statement This two devices can be built for under a total of $10.00. Hook it up to the red wire on the phone line and it will send the conversation over the air waves. Phone Dial Locks Phone dial locks are put on phones to prevent out-going calls. There are two ways to beat this obstacle, first pick the lock, or secondly: To be as simple as possible when you pick up the phone you complete a circuit known as a local loop. When you hang up you break the circuit. When you dial (pulse) it also breaks the circuit but not long enough to hang up. So you can "Push-dial." To do this you >>> RAPIDLY <<<>>> RAPIDLY <<< & >>> EVENLY <<<> : _____:_______


: / : \

: | : |


:________|____

====================\---))):


| |

Cord | To earpiece ->


\__________________________________

(The paper clip is shoved under the blue guy to make a good connection between the inside of the mouthpiece and the metal cord.) Now, dial the number of a local number you wish to call, sayyyy, MCI. If everything goes okay, it should ring and not answer with the "The Call You Have Made Requires a 20 Cent Deposit" recording. After the other end answers the phone, remove the paper clip. It's all that simple, see? There are a couple problems, however. One is, as I mentioned earlier, the mouthpiece not working after you punch it. If this happens to you, simply move on to the next payphone. The one you are now on is lost. Another problem is that the touch tones won't work when the paper clip is in the mouthpiece. There are two ways around this.. A> Dial the first 6 numbers. This should be done without the paper clip making the connection, i.e., one side should not be connected. Then connect the paper clip, hold down the last digit, and slowly pull the paper clip out at the mouthpiece's end. B> Don't use the paper clip at all. Keep the nail in after you punch it. Dial the first 6 digits. Before dialing the last digit, touch the nail head to the plate on the main body of the phone, then press the last number. The reason that this method is sometimes called clear boxing is because there is another type of phone which lets you actually make the call and listen to them say "Hello, hello?" but it cuts off the mouthpiece so they can't hear you. The Clear Box is used on that to amplify your voice signals and send it through the earpiece.

Accessing Free Calls II

Another, but rather complicated, way to make calls is by following the directions given below. Most phones though have had this facility removed from them but you may be able to find a remote phone that hasn't had this facility removed. This technique requires precise timing.

1: Lift reciever and hold phone to your ear, you should hear the dial tone. 2: Whilst listening to the phone pull the handset lever down, you will hear a click and apporx 2 secs later another click - you should lift the lever exactly on this click. Listen to it a few times so you know when it is comming and you are able to lift the reciever as it happens not after you hear it. 3: If you have done this correctly then the display should read 79 or 77 pounds 4: Now pull the lever down again, you will hear the phone automaticly dial a ten digit number followed by a click then approx 2 secs later another click the lever should be lifted exactly on this click (same as step 2). 5: If everything was done correctly the display should read 55 pounds and 26p. You are now free to make the calls required

Note: After the £55 has been used the money counter will reset at 99.99

Accessing Free Calls III

This following method will work on the phones only found inside buildings. They should be coloured with a beige or cream body and a brown handset. By lifting the reciever and typing in the following code (possibly the test code), the phone will produce a free call mode. * # 2 5 8 0

INTELLIGENCE GATHERING

In order for any assasin to operate, they must posses the ability to learn about their subject, in enough detail to ensure a succesful elimination operation. Firstly you need their name, the first name and surname. Once you have this you will need to find a phone book and look up under the name. If there is more than one fiting the description, phone each one up in turn and give a false account of who you are and what you want. You will now have the name, address and phone number of the subject. By acquiring a street map you can cross reference the address and the map and find the area in which the subject lives. From this you can now go and obtian information through the subjects garbage and observe them from a selected position.

Part I: DPAC offices

Every city has one or more offices dedicated to assigning numbers to the telephone wire pairs. These offices are called DPAC offices and are available to service Reps who are installing or repairing phones. To get the DPAC number, a service rep would call the old stand-by, customer service number for billing information in the town the number the phone is located in that he is trying to get the unlisted number of.. Okay? The conversation would go like this, 'Hi, San Fran this is Joe from San Mateo Business office. I need your DPAC number for the south end of town.' The information is usually passed out with no hassle, if the first person does not have it or is not helpful, try one from a different prefix in the same city. The rep would then call DPAC.

Note: He would have the listing info from his own district; again he is calling from a nearby town.

''Hi, Dee-Pac this is Joe from San Mateo Phone Store, I need the listing for 812 First Street.''

The San Francisco will then give the number at the address requested. There is no notation at DPAC if the number is listed or unlisted.

Part II: Rock Digging: The Art of Turning out facts

Digging

Without a doubt the number one, very most important thing an investigator can know is where to find information. Out there in the jungle are books, libraries, computers, newspapers, and civil servants, all justifying their existence by collecting and storing data on you, and unfortunately: me. One can prepare a dossier on almost any person, or company, by simply understanding the system, and knowing where and how to dig. The finished product will be so complete it will scare you. A background investigation done in this fashion will contain things the target himself had forgotten, along with things neither his mother nor wife ever knew. The following list is the most complete collection myself and a number of experts in the field could come up with. Most of the sources listed are publicly, or semi-publicly available. Some are considered closed. In dealing with any set of records under the control of a living person there is no such thing as a closed source. Some simply necessitate a different plan of attack. Civil servants, city hall record keepers and such, are often bendable by the correct use of flattery and involving them in an ''important investigation'' to find the real father of Susie before she succumbs to the cancer. Bribes are often an acceptable alternative. The key here is to determine who actually needs to be bribed. Never go for the head of a department if a low-paid clerk has physical control of the materials. Many of these sources can be found at a large library, or private collection. Rarely does one have to buy expensive directories. When applicable I have included source suggestions.

Hunting

Telephone Directories: Most citezens are listed in a phone directory somewhere. You can find major and many minor directories at big city libraries. The phone company will also give you, free of charge, any directory you ask for, if it is for business purposes.

Reverse Directories: This particular edition lists the number, 771-3082, followed by the owner, Jones, Jim, and address, 69 Peyton Place. Same sources as the other directories.

Private Telco Information: Every phone company has a list of their unpublished numbers, along with long distance call records, credit applications, where else the target has had a telephone and any additional listings or references he used on his original application. This information comes under the control of the telco's Chief Special Agent. He is in charge of hunting down nasties who defraud the phone company in one way or another and is probably an ex-cop or federal agent. He usually cooperate with legitimate police agencies and may help along a PI or other person with a cause. In smaller phone companies, or outlying districts the Chief Operator will have access to this information. Good people to make friends with.

Unlisted Numbers: There is no legal way to get an unlisted/unpublished number. There are a couple of other ways. The phone company puts out a small book of all unlisted numbers in their area. A phone person can sometimes be bribed to sell a copy of this book. If the number is actually unlisted a good private detective will have sources for it or follow my technique.

Part III: Information Gathering

Cross Directory: Each local phone company publishes a cross directory. This book lists every address in the district by street and then gives the occupants' name and telephone number. It does not list unlisted/unpublished numbers. The directory is normally updated every couple of months and is rented on a subscription basis. Many local libraries will have a copy. Most collection agents, some answering services and many news departments of radio and television stations will have a copy you can borrow for a moment. This directory is invaluable when tracking someone. If you can't find their number you can at least call their ex-neighbors with a nice story and come up with some information.

City Directories: Since the 1800's R.L. Polk Company of Taylor, Michigan has published city directories for most cities in the US. Sometime later they were joined by Cole's Householder Directors, Lincoln Nebraska. These directories are NOT based on telco information, but are compiled by having some $3.00 an hour ''investigator'' walk from house to house asking who lives there, how many in the family, the phone number, etc. If they miss anyone they leave a mail form. Many people who would not list their phone numbers, or don't have a phone in their name, will obligingly fill out these snoop forms because of the accompanying propaganda about how important the information is. Most libraries will have at least one of the directories for their area, phone companies will list the local office of the directory compilers. Collection agencies and news departments will have a copy of the directory.

Certificates of Existence: The government loves you. To prove that they are constantly collecting data to verify that you exist.

Birth Certificate: Name of child, eye color, name of father, mother's maiden name, date and place of birth, father's occupation, if couple not married at birth, name of doctor who delivered. Marriage Certificates: Name and place of birth for the man and woman, her maiden name, man's occupation, status of any previous marriages, birth dates and places, blood type. Death Certificates: Date and cause of death, doctor who signed the certificate, residence and occupation, SS number, military record, birth date and place, cemetery and funeral home names.

DMV: The Department of Motor Vehicles is a natural source for important data; in some states a call will give you the info sought, in some one mails a license number and a small fee (around $1.00) to the DMV and they will return the favor with owner info, and in some states they will not give out any details to anyone but the cops. One approach to this problem is to go through the cops.

Schools: A cumulative file is kept on every student from kindergarten through Ph.D. by the school involved. This file will include such things as parents, addresses, grades, IQ, receiving and forwarding addresses.

Tips

When looking for information, turn a 'blank' note pad at an angle and read any impressions made from previous notes. These can be seen more clearly by rubbing a pencil lightly over the area. Concealment as a 'blind' person can be advantages for observing. darkened glasses will need to be used.

PHONE TAPS

Here is some info on phone taps. In this file is a schematic for a simple wiretap & instructions for hooking up a small tape recorder control relay to the phone line.

First, I will discuss taps a little. There are many different types of taps. there are transmitters, wired taps, and induction taps to name a few. Wired and wireless transmitters must be physically connected to the line before they will do any good. Once a wireless tap is connected to the line,it can transmit all conversations over a limited reception range. The phones in the house can even be modifies to pick up conversations in the room and transmit them too! These taps are usually powered off of the phone line, but can have an external power source. You can get more information on these taps by getting an issue of Popular Communications and reading through the ads. Wired taps, on the other hand, need no power source, but a wire must be run from the line to the listener or to a transmitter. There are obvious advantages of wireless taps over wired ones. There is one type of wireless tap that looks like a normal telephone mike. All you have to do is replace the original mike with this and it will transmit all conversations! There is also an exotic type of wired tap known as the 'Infinity Transmitter' or 'Harmonica Bug'. In order to hook one of these, it must be installed inside the phone. When someone calls the tapped phone & *before* it rings,blows a whistle over the line, the transmitter picks up the phone via a relay. The mike on the phone is activated so that the caller can hear all of the conversations in the room. There is a sweep tone test at 415/BUG-1111 which can be used to detect one of these taps. If one of these is on your line & the test # sends the correct tone, you will hear a click. Induction taps have one big advantage over taps that must be physically wired to the phone. They do not have to be touching the phone in order to pick up the conversation. They work on the same principle as the little suction-cup tape recorder mikes that you can get at Radio Shack. Induction mikes can be hooked up to a transmitter or be wired. Here is an example of industrial espionage using the phone: A salesman walks into an office & makes a phone call. He fakes the conversation, but when he hangs up he slips some foam rubber cubes into the cradle. The called party can still hear all conversations in the room. When someone picks up the phone, the cubes fall away unnoticed. A tap can also be used on a phone to overhear what your modem is doing when you are wardialing, hacking, or just plain calling a bbs (like the White Ruins! Denver, Colorado! 55 megs online! Atari! Macintosh! Amiga! Ibm! CALL IT! 303-972-8566!

Here is the schematic: -------------------)!------ )!( ------------->


)!(

Cap ^ )!(


)!(

)!(


)!(

^^^^^---------------- )!( -------------> ^ 100K ! !

The 100K pot is used for volume. It should be on its highest (least resistance) setting if you hook a speaker across the output. but it should be set on its highest resistance for a tape recorder or amplifier. You may find it necessary to add another 10 - 40K. The capacitor should be around .47 MFD. It's only purpose is to prevent the relay in the phone from tripping & thinking that you have the phone off of the hook. the audio output transformer is available at Radio Shack. (part # 273-138E for input). The red & the white wires go to the output device. You may want to experiment with the transformer for the best output. Hooking up a tape recorder relay is easy. Just hook one of the phone wires (usually red) to the the end of one of the relay & the other end just loop around. This bypasses it. It should look like this:

--------------^^^^^^^^^----------------


--------------

RELAY^^

(part #275-004 from Radio Shack works fine)

If you think that you line is tapped, the first thing to do is to physically inspect the line yourself ESPECIALLY the phones. You can get mike replacements with bug detectors built in. However, it is too easy to get a wrong reading.

When using a phone, place a device that will emit a high magnetic field into the atmosphere to jam bugs and taps.

SURVIVAL KITS

A few key items can make all the difference in the fight for survival. All of the objects described hereafter can be fitted into a small container, such as a 2oz tobacco tin, that will be hardly noticeable when slipped into a jacket pocket. Do not choose anything bigger as you may find it inconvenient and leave it behind when you actually need it. Experience has proven that each item earns its place, although the usefulness of each item will change in different climates. The inside of the lid should be polished to form a mirror which can be waterproofed by use of some adheisive tape which can be removed in times of need. This will provide a valuble means of signalling should it be required. Check the contents regularly and replace any items that may deteriorate. Mark all drug containers with type, dosage and use by date. Pack any spaces with cotton wool as this will reduce the contents rattling and can be used as a method of fire lighting in later times. Fire is vital for survival, Four of the contents can be used for the purpose of fire lighting.

1. Matches Waterproof matches are useful but rather bulkier than strike anywhere matches, which can be made waterproof by coating their heads with melted wax, then peeling off the wax when they are required. To save space, snap each match in half. Only use matches when other improvised methods are less succesful, they should be used sparingly. Take them from the tin one at a time and replace the lid. Never leave the tin open or laying on the ground.

2. Candle Invaluble for starting fires as well as for a light source. The candle can be lit with one match then used as the job of many matches. Shave square for packing. If it is made from tallow it is also edible for use in an emergency or as a source of cooking fat. Tallow does not store well, especially in hote climates.

3. Flint Flints will work when wet and will go on striking long after the matches have run out. Invest in a small processed flint with a saw striker.

4. Magnifying Glass Can start a fire from direct sunlight and is useful for searching for splinters and stings.

5. Needles And Thread Several needles, including one with a very large eye that can be threaded with sinew and coarse threads. Choose strong thread and wrap it around the needles. Not only can they be used for sewing clothes, but if needed, can be used on flesh wounds.

6. Fish Hooks And Line A selection of different hooks in a small tin or packet. Add a few split lead weights. Remember that a small hook will catch both small and large fish but a large hook will only catch large fish. Include as much line as possible, it can also be used to catch birds.

7. Compass A luminous button compass - make sure you know how to read it, as small compasses can be confusing. A liquid filled type is best, but ensure it does not leak, has no bubbles in it and is fully functional. The pointer is prone to rust. Make sure it is on its pivot and swings freely.

8. Beta Light A light emmiting crystal, only the size of a small coin but ideal for reading a map at night and useful fishing lure. Expensive, but just about everlasting.

9. Snare Wire Preferably brass wire - 60-90cm long. Save for snares, but could also solve many other problems.

10. Flexible Saw These usually come with large rings at the ends as handles. These take up too much room and should be removed. They can be replaced with wooden toggles when needed. To protect from rust, cover it in a film of grease. Flexible saws can be used to cut even quite largs trees and can also be used as a garrote.

11. Medical Kit What you can include depends on your own skill of using it. Pack medicines in air tight containers with cotton wool to prevent rattling. the following items will cover most ailments but are only a guide.

Analgesic A pain reliever for mild to moderate pain. Codeine phosphate is ideal for tooth, ear and head aches. One tablet every 6 hours. can cause constipation as a side effect so can help with loose bowels. Not to be taken by children, asthmatics or people with liver problems.

Intestinal Sedative For treating acute and chronic diarrhoea. Immodium is usually favoured. Two tablets initially, then one each time a loose stool is passed.

Antibiotic For general infections. Tetracycline can be used even by people hypersensitive to penicillin. One 250mg tablet, four times daily, repeated for 5-7 days. Carry enough for a full course. If taking them avoide milk, calcium and other iron preperations or drugs containing aluminium hydroxide.

Antihistamine For allergies, insect bites and stings (may also help in cases of a bad reaction to a drug). Piriton is recommended in Britain, Benadryl in the USA. Sleepiness is a side effect of Piriton, so useful as a mild sleeping pill. Do not exceed recommended dosage or take with alcohol.

Water Sterilizing Tablets For use where water is suspect and you cannot boil. Follow manufactures' instructions.

Anti-Malaria Tablets Essential in areas where malaria is present. There are types which only require one tablet monthly.

Potassium Permanganate Has several uses. Add to water and mix until a pimk colour appears to sterilize it. A deeper pink to make an antiseptic and to a full red for treating fungal infections.

12. Surgical Blades At least two scaple blades of different sizes. A handle can be made from wood when required.

13. Butterfly Sutures Use to hold the edges of wounds together.

14. Plasters Assorted sizes, preferably waterproof and elastic. For minor abrsions and keeping cuts clean. They can be cut to be used as butterfly sutures.

15. Condom This makes a very good water bag, holding 1 litre / 2pints

Survival Pouch

In a car, boat or aircraft do not store all the kit seperately. Pack it in a survival pouch, too large to carry in your pocket but can be grabbed quickly in times of an emergency. If you are on fot keep it outside your back pack, carried on the belt. It should contain fuel, food, survival bag and signalling kit, all packed into a mess tin which protects the kit and is use as a cooking utensil. (mess tins are available from army surplus stores) Anything used from the pouch on a normal trip should be replenished as soon as possible. The pouch must be made from a water proof material and be large enough to hold a mess tin. It must have a positive fastening that will not come undone, and strong tunnel loop to hold it to your belt. The pouch will contain matches, solid fuels and flares, therefore, it must be treated with care.

1. Mess Tin This is made from aluminium, which is light and strong. A good cooking utensil, it protects kit packed inside.

2. Fuel Preferably you should have solid fuel tablets in their own stove. Use sparringly when a wod fire is inconvenient. The military hexamine stoves are highly recommended. The stove simply folds out to form an adjustable pot stand and holds its own solid fuel blocks inside.

3. Tourch Pack a small pencil-like tourch that takes up little room. Keep batteries inside, but reverse the last so thet, if accidently switched on, the batteries will not run out. Lithium batteries are recommended as they last a long time.

4. Flares Signal flares to attract attention, especially in close country. Carry red and green miniflares and a discharger. Pack carefully as these are explosive. Folow instructions on packet carefully and do not waste.

5. Marker Panel A strip or bar of flourescent material about 0.3 x 2m used to attract attention in an emergency. One bar signals immediate evacution. Pack to stop other items rattling.

6. Matches Pack as many as possible in a waterproof container. Movement against each other can ignite non-safety matches - pack carefully.

7. Brew Kit There is nothing like a brew-up to restore morale. Pack powdered tea and milk and sachets of sugar. Tea quenches the tirst - coffee aggrivates it.

8. Food Fat is the hardest food to come by when living off the land. Its extra calories earn its lace in the kit. Tubes of butter, lard or ghee are available. Dehydrated meat blocks are nourishing and sustaining, thoough not very good in flavour. Chocolate is good but does not keep well. Salt must be included, salt tablets are the compact way to carry it, or better still, an electrolite powder which contains vitamins, salt and other minerals that the body requires. A good variety of dried foods can be obtained from most army surplus stores in the form of soldiers ration packs.

9. Survival Bag A large polythene bag about 200 x 60cm is a life saver in the cold. In an emergency, get inside to reduce loss of heat. Although we from condensation, it will keep you warm. The best form of survival bag is a reflective material such as a space blanket.

MOVEMENT

The Nine Steps

Man sees in three ways, by movement, silhouette, and colour. Man also hears, and some hear more acutely than others. Also, since some people can sense a foreign presence, one must have a calm mind to escape their notice. To elude all these sensory pickups is to be invisible for all practical purposes. To eradicate colour, one employs black art, a magician's skill. Black is the absence of colour. This means that a black surface absorbs all of the light rays incident upon it, reflecting none. It is the reflected rays that give an object its apparent colour. Further a black surface casts no shadow upon itself to define its depth. To erase shadow and sound, one must employ the nine steps detailed next:

1. Black/Stealthily Step

Lower the hips and raise both arms; the feet are turned inwards and one shoulder width apart. The hips are back and the head lowered. The eyes are directed without being fixed at a spot about ten foot ahead. Keeping the upper body still move the right foot in to the left then out and forward in a semi-circle manner, keeping all the weight on the left foot and feeling the ground ahead with the foot for a suitable step. Always keep the arms up and elbows in to protect the body and feel for obstacles. Always direct the Chi (inner/sixth sense) forward.

2. Cross Step

Stand sideways to the direction you wish to go. The lead arm is held middle to low section in front of you ready to steady the body if it should become unbalanced and the rear arm is held up by the head in a ready position. Move all of the body weight onto the front foot then bring the rear foot around in front of the body and place it half a step in front, in the direction you want to go. Then take the front foot, from behind the previous rear foot, and stretch it out as far as possible feeling for a suitable position to place it. The eyes scan the ground about three foot in front. This technique is easily mastered and is extremely efficient for quick, silent movement. When passing a window, or the like, one should listen for sounds before, during and after one has passed the obstacle. Always try and move on the balls of the feet, as this gives faster, smother movements.

3. Night Walking Ability

This is employed when it is necessary to move quietly and quickly forward. Lower the body for better balance, and extend the arms, palm down at waist level. Step forward with the left foot, balancing on the right leg. Place the toes lightly on the ground and shift body weight forward. As you move, press the left heel down gently. Glide forwards, advancing the right foot in a similar manner.

4. Serpent Step

This technique is employed when one needs move close to the ground. Keep the body as flat as possible. The hands are kept palms down, near the face, with elbows close to the body, legs spread, and toes outward. The head is lifted to observe the enemy. to move forward, extend the arms and draw the left leg forward. The weight is borne on the forearms and ankle to knee on the leg, so that the body does not drag on the ground. Change the pushing leg frequently to avoid fatigue. Stop and listen after each movement, silence and slow movement are essential.

Dragon Step

This is a variation of the serpent step. Keep the body free of the ground by resting on the forearms and lower legs. Move forwards by alternately moving the right knee/left elbow and then the left knee/ right elbow. This position is quite vulnerable so use it at distance.

5. Rushing Step

Use this technique when changing cover. From a press up position, bring the right leg up to the chest, the same as a 100m runner. Spring to the feet and run to the next position keeping low with the arms hanging in front. At the new position silently drop to the knees then to the front of the body and roll into cover.

6. Entering Pivot

This is most effective when turning a corner, i.e. a wall. Press against the wall with the back, resting the weight forward. Place the leading hand by the knee and the rear hand around the body and press it against the wall by the face. Slowly learn forward and look around the corner. Do this at a fairly low level. Having determined that the move can be accomplished move the head back out of sight. Stretch the leading leg around the corner as far as possible and slide the body around the corner. When the hips have cleared the wall the rear leg is pulled through. Press your back against the wall and check that the movement was not observed.

7. Wall Climbing Ability

To perfect this technique to scale bare or smooth walls requires three years floor work, three years climbing walls with jutting bricks and three years bare wall climbing. Press the body against the wall, getting a feel for the surface material. Look directly upward, selecting a hand hold route you will employ. Grip the ledge, and place the toes on a second ledge. Simultaneously push with the legs and pull with the arms, gaining sufficient momentum to carry your hand to the edge of the wall. Regain balance and go again, moving only one point at a time. Walls may also be advanced with the chest facing, and using drainpipes and trellises, bearing in mind that they are considerably weaker at the top than at the bottom. Always test the object before attempting to scale them. When confronted by a fence topped by barbed wire, three methods may be used to cross the perimeter. First you may climb the barrier, finding ample support for feet and hands near the support poles. When crossing the barbed wire, grasp it at either the support, or between the barbs and slowly let yourself over taking care not to get caught on the wire. Drop clear of the fence on the other side executing a forward roll to break the impact, reduce noise and roll to a pre-selected point of concealment. Take care not to touch electrified fences, look for small insulator boxes at intervals and dead animals nearby.

8. Side Step

This technique is employed when the need to pass an open door or threshold arises. Assume the position as in the 'entering pivot step' (#6) Observe the situations, noting any personnel and their positions. As quickly and silently as possible push off with the rear leg stepping clear of the opening and landing on the left leg in one swift motion. On the other side check once again that the movement was not observed.

9. Lost Track Pivot

Stand with knees slightly bent toes pointing forward, and the body lowered slightly. Pivot on the ball of the right foot while turning toward your right forward corner and step out to your left. You will now be facing 90 degrees from your original position. The instant the left foot touches down, shift the weight to that side and execute another 90 degree pivot, this time to your right rear corner. You now face 180 degrees from your original position.

More Ways To Move

When ascending stairs keep close to the wall and move using the cross step. Alternatively you could use the dragon step to move up the stairs. This spreads out the body weight and pressure and reduces noise while keeping the body's position covered. When confronted by a mirror, treat it as an opening or window passing out side the field of reflection. Observe the position of your shadow as this may give you away.

Moving At Night

Not all of the movement methods are suitable at night. The appropriate method for night movement must be adopted. * At night you hear more than you see * Stop and listen. Keep close to the ground. * Freeze if you hear a noise.

When moving at night always remember to:

* Keep quite..........................Don't have loose equipment *Move carefully...................Use the appropraite method of moving * Clear the route...................Do not step on any dry vegetation * Use avaiolable cover........Flares turn night into day

Listening At Night

Use your ears and turn them towards any sound. Closing the eyes will help to increase the amount of noise that you hear. If there are men about, keep an ear close to the ground or any other other dense material such as walls, roads, rail traks, etc. Sound travels alot better throuch denser materials than it does through air.

Night Vision

Humans can see in the dark, however, the eyes take approximately 30 minutes to used to the dark. At night remember:

* We can see less than in daylight * We see shapes not detail * We see skylines and silhouettes * We may see movemnet.

Exposure to bright light will ruin the eyes night vision. If caught in the light of flares, headlights or other strong sources of light, take cover at once (in open ground), freeze (in a wood). If you see a flare, or bright light source, instantly close one eye. This will help to protect the night vision in that eye.

Movement Rules

Follow these general rules to move without being seen or heard by the enemy:

* Camouflage yourself and your equipment. * Wear soft, well-fitting clothes. Starched clothing swishes, baggy clothing is likely to snag. * Use ankle ties to blouse the trousers. Do not tie them too tightly as this restricts circulation. * Do not carry unnecessary equipment. * Look for your next point of concealment before leaving your position. * Change direction when moving through tall grass; a straight path causes unnatural motion which attracts attention. * If you alarm birds or animals , remain in your position and observe. Their flight may attract attention. * Take advantage of distractions provided by natural noises. * Cross roads and tracks where maximum cover exists, look for a low spot or curve, cross quickly and silently. * Follow the furrows when crawling over ploughed land, crossing the furrows at low spots. * Avoid steep slopes and areas with loose gravel or stone. * Avoid cleared areas and prevent silhouetting. * Avoid heavily trafficked areas. * Avoid areas that are not trafficked at all, they could be mined or booby-trapped. * Always move downwind from kennels or guard dog positions. * Observe the enemy as much as possible, watching for indications that you have been discovered. * When in doubt, don't move. * Learn the patterns used to see, that you may move outside the field of view. * Learn to move without disturbing your surroundings.

In these you must research and train diligently.

TRACKING

Section 1: General

Tracking plays a special and very important part in maintaining contact with the enemy, in locating their camps and hides, and in following up after a contact or an incident. Without considerable practical experience no man can become an expert, but with a little basic knowledge, well applied, most men can become "bush minded." As bushcraft, which includes the ability to track, is essentially a practical subject, no amount of theorizing can make an expert. Practice in the field is essential. As with most skills, bushcraft must become an automatic action which will be of the greatest value in actual operations.

Section 2: Tracking Techniques To assist troops in the tracking of individuals or bands of enemy, some suggested techniques are listed below. Action on finding tracks. Unless it is possible to follow the spoor (track mark) with either a civilian tracker or a tracker team, anyone finding spoor should isolate the scene and keep that area free of military forces until the arrival of trackers. An immediate report should be made to higher headquarters giving the following information:


Estimated number of terrorists.

Estimated age of spoor.


Direction.

Any other useful information such as location, terrain, type of tracks, etc.

It is absolutely essential that the spoor is not obliterated or disturbed by the discoverers. The spoor and surrounding area must remain untouched until the arrival of a tracker or tracker team. It is not possible to follow one preserved spoor when the remainder of the area has been trampled flat by military forces. It frequently pays to backtrack when very fresh tracks are found, particularly early in the morning when they may lead from a camp. Action When Tracking. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Work in pairs when possible. * Use a pointer to indicate the tracks. This can be a stick or even a rifle. * When a trail is faint, leapfrog the trackers. * The tracker who has the run of a track must keep on it and only change when the run is broken. * In the interests of speed, track ahead where possible and not at your feet. * Depending on conditions, use ground or aerial tracking, but if possible, use aerial tracking for speed. * Think ahead and listen for bird and game alarms which could indicate * movement or presence of humans ahead. * Bear in mind minor details which aid tracking, e.g., sand on rocks, overturned leaves, etc. * Patrol members not employed with the actual tracking will adopt an open formation and be on the alert for enemy action. * The person or persons doing the tracking must at all times be protected by members of the patrol. * Tracking in overcast weather and around midday will be difficult due to lack of shadow which gives depth. * Track by "feeling" over dead leaves on damp ground for indentations if all else fails. * Do not talk -- communicate by means of hand signals. * To ascertain whether gangs are in the area, look for signs at fruit-bearing trees, water holes, trapping sites, beehives or observation points. Also watch for signs of fires, particularly in the early morning or late evening. * If the track suddenly becomes well-hidden but not lost, circle downwind and try to pick up scent, smoke or firelight, especially at night. * Be constantly aware of the possibility of trickery or deception; for example, men turning towards water, then going from tree to tree in the opposite direction; hiding underwater or underground in a wild animals' burrow; shoes tied on backwards; grass bent back; walking backwards or on the side of the feet; or tying cattle hooves onto the shoes or feet. * Study the enemy's habits at every opportunity. * Action should the trail split. Trackers must be trained to report immediately to the patrol commander any attempt by the enemy to split up. * The patrol commander then decides, on the advice of the tracker, which track will be followed. The splitting point should be marked so that the trackers can return to it and, if necessary, start again.

To assist the trackers in picking up the tracks again a few hints are listed below:

* Examine any logs, stones, etc., in the immediate vicinity of the track for sign of disturbance. * Examine leaves and grass on either side of the track for signs of disturbance. * Attempts at deception, unless done by an expert, will often give a clearer indication of where the track is located.

Action When The Track Is Lost. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* When the track is lost, the leading tracker should indicate that he has reached the last visible sign of the track he is following. Trackers must be trained never to pass beyond this point without first informing the patrol commander of its exact location.

A Simple Drill For The Search Is: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Leading tracker halts the patrol and indicates the position of the last visible sign to the patrol commander. * The sign is marked for future reference. * Flank trackers do a circular cast working towards one another in the hope of picking up the spoor again. * While the flank trackers are carrying out the search as described above, the tracker who was on the spoor carries out a 360-degree search up to approximately 15 metres to his immediate front. * Once the spoor has been relocated, the tracker who found the spoor then takes over as main tracker. The remainder of the team fall into an appropriate tracker formation.

Use Of Aircraft For Tracking ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

a. Light aircraft and/or helicopters can actively assist patrols during the tracking of terrorist groups by: Spotting terrorists from the air, bearing in mind that the terrorists are likely to take cover on hearing aircraft. Aircraft may also break security and indicate to terrorists that they are being followed. Slowing down the terrorists as they attempt to keep under cover, thereby enabling the trackers to close with them. Visual air reconnaissance will provide valuable information concerning the nature of the country ahead of the followup group. This information should enable the patrol to assess:


Likely routes taken by terrorists.

Ambush positions.


Camps.

Helicopters may be used to uplift trackers in the leapfrog role Section 3: Anti-Tracker Measures

Detailed below are a number of points which should be taken into consideration: * Think when moving. Do not relax. * Do not become regular in habit. * Avoid the obvious. * Watch the nature of the country carefully and use types of ground which are difficult to track in. * Use weather to advantage, that is, move in rain. * Carry a stick with which to bend grass and branches back. * On special operations, to increase deception, wear smooth-soled shoes which leave less distinctive prints, or go barefoot or use motor-tire sandals. * Walk on the side of the foot when necessary as this leaves no heel or toe marks. * Cross tracks, roads or streams by crossing in trees or on rocks. if this is not possible when crossing a wide sandy track or road, cross at one place, each man stepping carefully on the footprints of the leading man, thereby leaving only one set of prints. * Be careful with smokey fires, tobacco smell, soap in streams or rivers, bird and game alarms or insect or frog silences. * Do not be too tempted to use water as a line of movement, as this is where the enemy will probably search or look for signs of security forces in the area. * With a large party, where possible, avoid moving in single file as this will leave definite signs and a track. move in open formation instead.

Section 4: Hints On Trails And Tracking

General. ~~~~~~~

It is extremely difficult to move silently and quickly in most parts of the bush and consequently this requires a lot of practice and concentration. There are many paths in the bush made by game during their nightly or seasonal movements. These animals avoid steep or slippery slopes, and therefore game paths will normally provide easy going. Terrorists and military patrols use these trails when quick silent movement is required. Troops should therefore exercise extreme caution when using these trails as they might well be ambushed.

Tracking Spoor. ~~~~~~~~~~~~ There are two distinct types of spoor, ground spoor and aerial spoor. The ground sign is normally made by a boot- or footprint, and aerial spoor is in the form of trampled grass, broken bushes, broken cobwebs, etc. The following are signs the experienced tracker looks for when tracking spoor: * Crushed and bent grass and vegetation. * Broken twigs and leaves. * Overturned leaves and stones. * Mud displaced from streams. * Broken cobwebs. * The state of the dew on a trail. * Mud or scratches on stones and logs.

Man.-Barefoot prints are soft rounded impressions formed by the heel, ball of foot, or toes.

Women's tracks are generally smaller and have on the whole two characteristics. Firstly, they tend to be pigeon-toed, and secondly, their toes are more splayed out than men's.

Running men. Points to observe are skid marks, depth of impression, running on balls of feet and toes, splayed out toes and badly damaged vegetation, with resultant lack of concealment of trail.

Loaded men. Short footsteps, deeper impressions than normal in soft ground, and toes splayed out.

Animals. Due to the fact that most animals have cloven hooves, the impressions formed on the ground have sharp, clear-cut edges. Judging the age of tracks.

Weather. ~~~~~~~ The state of the weather -- rain, wind, sunshine -- should always be borne in mind as it is one of the most important points in deciding the age of a track.

Obliteration by rain or light rain. By remembering when it last rained, more accurate judgement of the age of tracks is possible. If the tracks are pock-marked, obviously they were made before the rain, and if they are not pock-marked they were made after the rain. Similarly, by looking to see if the tracks have been pock-marked by light rain dripping from trees, the age can be established.

The state and position of trodden vegetation. Various grasses have different grades of resilience, and only practice and experience will enable a tracker to use this factor to judge accurately the age of the spoor. Bent grass or leaves. An indication of the age of a track may be gained by its dryness. Bent grass will be green initially but after a few days will turn a brown colour. Again, the amount of sunshine and rain during the last few days should be taken into account. Impression in mud. Always note the state of dryness of a track in mud or soft ground. if the track is very fresh, water will not have run back into the depression made by a foot. Later the water runs back, and later still the mud which has been pushed up around the depression, and the mud kicked forward by the food leaving the ground, begins to dry.

Game tracks. Remember that most animals lie up during the day and move about at night. Therefore, if human prints on main forest game trails have at least a double set of animal spoor superimposed and these spoor show that the game has moved in both directions, any human prints are probably at least one night old. If the animal spoor show that game has moved in one direction only, then the human prints were probably made during the night, after the game had moved down to water but before the game moved back. Information regarding terrorist methods of concealing tracks and camps should also be sought. Factors Affecting Tracking. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ There are certain factors which affect tracking. * Whether the ground is hard or soft, stony or muddy. * The type of country. * The weather -- things lack depth in overcast weather. * The position of the sun relative to the direction of travel. The most * suitable position is when one has to track towards the sun. * The footwear of the human quarry. A distinct boot pattern is obviously easier to follow than a plain-soled spoor. * The extent to which other similar tracks may confuse and possibly blur the spoor. g. Concentration and the effect of weariness.

Things The Tracker Must Look For. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Footprints and impressions of footwear:

* The rhythm of the spoor or the length of stride of the quarry. This is a guide to where the next footprint may be found. * Trampled grass. * Soil, and marks in the soil where indirect pressure may have left no impression. Disturbed stones, sticks or so . * Leaves which have been turned, crushed, kicked or pulled off trees; branches and twigs bent or broken and vegetation pushed aside; the reflection of light from grass or leaves displaced at an angle; the colour of bent and broken vegetation; and scratched or chipped bark. * Discarded wrapping and masticated vegetation. * Cobwebs broken or wiped off onto a nearby tree or bush. * Urine and excrement, frequently indicated by house flies and yellow * butterflies, and dung bettles during the rains. * Snares and traps, robbed bees' nests and smoke. * The state of dew on the spoor. * Mud displaced from streams or mud on stones and logs. * Squashed animal or insect life, and whether it has been attacked by ants.

A tracker has many things to consider while tracking. He must possess certain qualities, such as above average eyesight, memory, intelligence, fitness, anticipation and understanding of nature. Patience, persistence acute observation and natural instinct are the basis of good tracking. There are times when pure instinct alone will draw a tracker in the correct direction. All units should ensure that training in aggressive bushcraft is maintained at the highest possible standard.

ADVANCING TOWARDS THE ENEMY

If the need to move across country arises : check that you know where to head for. Then decide the best route.

Remember:

* Routes must be planned ahead. * You must move in bounds or stages from one observation point to another. *You must check your direction, be sure to keep on course. *You must not be seen, but should be able to see the enemy.

The best route will:

* Have places to observe the enemy - without being able to be seen yourself. Do not move blindly towards the enemy. * Give good fire positions. You must be able to fire if necessary. * Give cover from the enemy. * Let you move without being seen. * Not have impassable obstacles, such as marsh, tall, wide blockages or open ground.

NAVIGATION

Direction Finding

The earths relationship to the rest of the solar system and the position of the stars in the sky help to locate any position on its surface. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west - but not exactly in the east and west. There is also some seasonal variation. In the northern hemisphere, when at its highest point in the sky, the sun will be due south; in the southern hemisphere this noonday point will mark due north. The hemisphere will be indicated by the way that the shadows move: clockwise in the north, anticlockwise in the south. Shadows can be a guide to both direction and the time of day.

Shadow Stick method 1:

On a patch of flat, clear ground place a metre long stick as up right as possible. Note where its shadow falls and mark the tip with a pebble or stick. Wait at least 15 minutes and mark the new shadow tip. Join the two and you will have the directions of east and west - the first being west. North-south will be at right angles to this line. This method works at any time of day when there is sunlight and at any latitude.

Shadow Stick Method 2:

Another, more acurate, method - if there is time - is to mark the first shadow tip in the morning. Draw a clean arc at exactly this distance from the stick, using the stick as a centre point. As midday approaches the shadow will shrink and move. In the afternoon, as the shadow lengthens again, mark the exact spot where it touches the arc. Join the two points to give east and west - west being the morning mark.

A simple time scale can be made by marking the shadows throught out the day at regular intervals from the first to the last shadow. Mark specifically midday - when the sun is at its peak. The two halves can then be divided up into equal sections and used as a basic time scale if you are to remain in one place for a long period.

Direction By Watch

A traditional watch with two hands can be used to find the direction, provided it is set to true local time (without variation for summer daylight saving and ignoring conventional time zones which do not match real time). The nearer the equator you are the less accurate this method will be, for with the sun almost directly overhead it is very difficult to determine its direction.

Northen Hemisphere : Hold the watch horizontal. Point the hour hand at the sun. Find the central point between the 12 and the hour hand (moving clockwise form 12-hour hand at all times even past 6) This central point will give you south. Example: Its 4 o'clock. Point the 4 towards the sun, the central point between the 4 and 12 is 2, therefore the 2 points due south.

Southern Hemisphere : Hold the watch horizontal. point the 12 towards the sun. A mid point between 12 and the hour hand will give you the north-south line.

Improvised Compass

A peice of ferrous metal - a sewing needle is ideal - stroked repeatedly in one direction against silk will become magnatised and can be suspended so that it points north. The magnitism is not very strong and will need topping up regularly. Suspend the needle in a loop of thread, so that it does not affect the balance. Any kinks in or twisting of the thread must be avoided. Stroking with a magnet, should you have one, wil be much more efficient than using silk - stroke the metal smoothly from one end to the other in one direction only.

Floating Needle

A suspended needle will be easier to handle on the move but in camp or when making a halt a better method is to lay the needle on a piece of paper, bark or grass and float it on the surface of water.

Razor Blade Compass

A thin flat razor blade can also be used as a compass needle because it is made of two metals bonded together. It can be magnitised be stropping with care against the the palm of the hand, and then suspending it.

With any of the above methods involving metals, be aware of any wild readings that can be caused by large amounts of ferrous metals nearby.

Plant Pointers

Even without a compass or the sun to give direction you can get an indication of north and south from plants. They tend to grow towards the sun so their flowers and most abundant growth will be to the south in the northern hemisphere and the north in the southern hemisphere. On tree trunks moss will tend to be greener and more profuse on that side too. Trees with a grainy bark will also display a tighter grain on the north side of the trunk. If trees have been felled or struck down the pattern of the rings on the stump also indicates direction - more growth is made on the side towards the equator so there the rings are more widely spread.

The Moon

If the moon rises before the the sun has set the illuminated side will be on the west. If the moon rises after midnight the illuminated side will be in the east. This means you have the moon as a rough east-west refernce at night.

The Northern Sky

The star constellation of 'The plough' or 'Big dipper' can provide a good method of deducing a northern direction. This constellation appears to be a large saucepan, depending on the time of year it may appear upside down. The two stars on the end of the constellation, when a line is 'drawn' to join them and continue up, will point to the north star about fourtimes the distance between the two. The north star will appear fairly bright but it is not the brightest in the sky!


! |

North star ---- * | | | | | | '


*

* * * | * ' The Plough *


*

Reading The Signs - The Weather

There are ten main types of cloud formation. Each of which brings a diffrent type of weather. Learning these signs will aid greatly in any hunt as you will be able to plan your moves to the weather, set up the appropriate conditions, predict the enemy's movemnets, etc. The higher the clouds are the finer the weather. Small black clouds scudding beneath a dark stratus layer often bring showers. the altitudes are given as rough guides.

Cirrocumulus clouds - are small rounded masses, looking like rippled sand. Normally an omen of fair weather, they usually follow a storm and dissipate, leaving a brillint blue sky ( 3.1 - 4.9 miles)

fAltocumulus clouds - are fair weather clouds, similar to cirrocumulus but on a larger scale, not so white and with shadows in them. They usually appear after a storm. (1 - 4 miles)

Cumulonimbus clouds - are low thunder clouds. Dark and angry looking, they may tower to 6, 000m with the top flattening out in what is often called an anvil top. This is a cloud that brings hail, a strong wind, thunder and lightning. False cirrus apears above, false nimbostratus below. (0.9 - 6.2 miles)

Cumulus clouds - are very easy to recognise: fluffy white clouds, not unlike cauliflowers. They are usually an indication of fair weather when widely seperated but, if they become very large and develope many heads they are capable of producing sudden heavy showers. Cumulus clouds at sea in an otherwise clear sky are often an indication of land beneath them. (1.6 and less miles)

Cirrus clouds - are high, wispy clouds formed from ice crystals which give them a white appearence. They are seen in fine weather. (3.1 - 5.5 miles)

Cirrostratus clouds - are clouds made up of ice particles and look like white veins. These are the only clouds which produce a halo around the sun or moon. If it gets bigger it means fine weather, smaller a sign of rain. If the sky is covered with cirrus clouds and the sky above them darkens and the formation changes to cirrostratus it is an indication that rain or snow are comming. (3.1 - 5.5 miles)

Altostratus clouds - form a greyish veil through which the sun or moon may appear as a watery disc. If wet weather is approaching the disk will appear and the cloud thicken and darker until it begins to tain. (1.6 - 3.7 miles)

Nimbostratus clouds - form low, dark blankets of cloud and spread gloom. They mean rain or snow within four or five hours and usually the rain continues for hours. (0.9 - 3.1 miles)

Stratocumulus clouds - form a low, lumpy, rolling mass, usually covering the whole sky, though often thin enough for the sun to filter through them. Light showers may precipitate from these clouds but they usually dissipate in the afternoon and leave a clear night sky. (below 1.6 miles)

Stratus clouds - are the lowest of clouds and form a uniform layer like fog in the air - they are often described as hill fog when they occur. They are not a normal rain cloud but can produce drizzle. When they form thickly overnight and cover the morning sky they will usually be followed by a fine day. (less than 1.6 miles)

Predictions

To be caught in bad weather could prove to be fatal to survival, and is the last thing that is wanted when engaged in a hunt. There is a time to go out or move on and a time to seek shelter. To eliminate someone, first you must be able to take care of yourself. It is no good hunting with the flu as this will inhibit many of the senses and could lead the enemy to you position. With an awareness of certain signs, short - term weather predictions can be made to help decide what action to take. Before setting out on any hunt or track take note of the weather and any changes that are likely to occur. Learn to observe wind and pressure changes and keep a record of the weather and the conditions that precede it and what they develope into.

Wildlife Indicators

Animals have great sensitivity to atmospheric pressure which aids them in forecasting the weather a day or two in advance. Insect-eating birds, such as swallows, feed higher in good weather, lower when a storm is approaching. Unusual rabbit activity during the day, or squirrels taking more food than usual to nests, may be a prelude to bad weather. Nature, however, does not go in for long-time forecasting. A squirrel's hoard of nuts is an indication of its industry, not the intensity of the coming weather winter. The depth of a bear's den has no relation to its severity, but reflects the soil cinditions. A particularly large crop of berries is the reult of previous bad conditions, the tree producing extra fruit to give the species more chance of survival.

Fireside Clues

If the smoke from the camp fire rises steadily the weather is settled and likely to remain fine. If it starts swirling, or being beaten downwards after rising a short way, it indicates the likely approach of a storm or shower. Wooden tool handles tighten at the approach of stormy weather. Salt picks up increasing dampness in the air and will not run.

Body Feelings

Clean or fluffy hair will begin to stand up in a 'frizz' at the incease of electrical activity in the atmosphere. The electricity in the atmosphere can also be 'felt' and some people find that they have headaches occurring. More electrical activity often shows sign of an approaching storm. Curly-haired people find that there hair becomes tighter and less managable as bad weather approaches - and the smae happens to animal fur. Anyone with rheumatism, corns or similar ailments can usually tell when wet weather is coming by an increase in their discomfort.

Sound And Smell

When wet weather is on the way, the sounds tend to carry further than usual and distant noises seem more clear - the moisture laden atmosphere acts like an amplifier. But compare like to like - remember sound always travels better over water. the smell of trees and plants become more distinctive before the arrival of rain, the vegetation is opening to recieve it.

Signs In The Sky

A grey morning is usually the start of a dry day. The dull colour is a result of dry air above the haze formed by the collection of dew on the dust particles suspended in the lower atmosphere. An evening sky that is grey and overcast indicates rain - the dust particles are so laden with moisture that they will soon drop as rain. Early morning mist ligfting from a valley is a sure sign of fair weather. In hilly country, if mist has not lifted by noon, it is set in for the day and will probably turn to rain during the late afternoon. A clear night sky is an indication of good, settled weather. At the end of summer it may also be a warning of a frost and cold weather: at night the clouds insulate the surface of the earth against loss of heat. Without them frost is more likely. Cold air, being heavy, fills the hollows - avoid camping in them. A clear sky one night, followed by one with only a few stars visible, indicates a change in weather. A corona, a coloured circle visible around the sun or moon, can be used to forecast the weather. An enlarging ring is a sign of good weather - the enlarging circle shows that moisture in the atmosphere is evaporating and day or night will be clear. A shrinking corona around the sun or moon is a sign of rain.

Other aids to predicting the weather are:

Red sky at night means good weather. Red sky in the morning often brings bad weather. A clear sky in the evening that continues into the night will bring cold a night. A overcast sky in the evning continuing into the night will bring a warmer night, however may produce showers. By assesing the direction of the winds at a high altitude and noting where they come from will give a fair indication of fore coming weather. The direction of the wind can be noted by assesing the rate at which plane vapour trails break up. Wind coming over the sea or cold/wet area will bring cold and wet weather. Winds from large land masses will bring drier weather.

HOT WIRING

The easiest way to hot wire a car if the need arises is simle to gain access to the car. Look under the dash. If it enclosed, you will have to cut through it. If you do, do it near the ignition. Once you get behind or near the ignition look for two red wires. In older cars red was the standard color, if not, look for two matched pairs. When you find them, cross them and the car will start up. Other ways to start a car without the keys, is to use the lock picking method for padloks described in this manual. Alternativly, you could destroy the pins inside the lock and turn using a screwdriver or similar device.

SLEIGHT OF HAND

This elementary slieght of hand can be invaluble in many spects of the assassins work. It is epecially useful in aiding shoplifting and similar activities. Although the princple is easy to grasp, it needs alot of practice to perfect it. You must aim to make the move so natural that nobody has any idea that anything untowed has happened. Start with a coin - 10p or 50p is ideal for size and weight - between the tips of the thumb and index finger of you left hand. If you are left handed then you must reverse these instructions. However, it is to a better advantage to practice and become fluent with both hands. Yor right hand now comes across with the thumb under the coin and the fingers above, as if to take the coin. What actually happens is that as the fingers of your right hand close the coin it drops into the palm of your left hand. The right hand closes into a fist, apparently with the coin in it, and continues to progress forward, as the left hand with the coin securely in the palm drops to the side of your body and out of the way. This sleight of hand should be practised infont of a mirror until the whole short sequence looks just s if you have a coin in the left hand which is transferred to the right. When the coin drops into the palm of the left hand, you will find that by contracting the muscles in the palm the coin can be retained without using the fingers. You hand will appear relaxed, which is what you want as attention should be on the closed right hand where the coin appparently is. Do not mke the coin vanish straight away from the right hand, but make sure that the 'audience' is watching it as you make a squeezing motion with the fingers before opening the hand out to show that the coin has vanished. the coin in the left hand can be pocketed with ease later. This technique can be used on many other items not just coins, and should be practiced to perfection.


IDENTIFYING, ATTACKING, DEFEATING, AND BYPASSING

PHYSICAL SECURITY AND INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS

Introduction:

Physical Security relies on the following ideas to protect a facility:

Deterrence Prevention Detection Response

Deterrents are used to 'scare' the intruder out of trying to gain access. Prevention tries to stop the intruder from gaining access. Detection 'sees' the intruder while attempting to gain access. Response tries to stop and/or prevent as much damage or access to a facility as possible after detection. There are 3 security levels used in this article and in industry to designate a facility's need. They are: Low, Medium, and High. The amount, and types of security devices used by a facility are directly proportional to the level of security the facility 'thinks' it needs. This article will be primarily concerned with the protection of the perimeter.

The Perimeter:

A facility's first line of defense against intrusion is its' perimeter. The perimeter may have any or all of the following:

* A single fence * An interior fence coupled with an exterior fence * Regular barbed wire * Rolled barbed wire * Various fence mounted noise or vibration sensors * Security lighting and CCTV * Buried seismic sensors and different photoelectric and microwave systems

Fences:

Fences are commonly used to protect the perimeter. The most common fence in use today is the cyclone fence, better known as the chain link fence. Fences are used as a deterrent and to prevent passage through the perimeter. Common ways of defeating fences are by cutting, climbing, and lifting. Cutting is not usually recommended for surreptitious entry, since it is easily noticeable. In this article, we will be taking the 'Stealth' approach. Climbing is most commonly done, but if the fence is in plain view, it may not be advisable since you can be seen easily. The higher the fence, the longer it takes to climb. The longer it takes to climb, the longer security has to detect and respond to your actions. Lifting is better since you are closer to the ground, and not as easily spotted, but the fence must be very flexible, or the sand very soft so you can get under the fence quickly and easily. Whenever you see a somewhat 'unclimbable' fence (or one that you just don't want to climb) you should check the perimeter for large trees with uncut branches hanging over the fence or other objects which will enable you to bypass the fence without ever touching it. You could use a ladder but you don't want to leave anything behind, especially with your fingerprints on it, not that you plan on doing anything illegal of course. Electric fences are not used for security purposes as much as they were in the past. Today, its main use if to keep cattle or other animals away from the perimeter (either from the inside or outside). There are devices which send a low voltage current through a fence and can detect a drop in the voltage when someone grabs onto the fence. Again, not too common. For high security installations, there may be 2 fences. An outer fence, and an inner fence which are 5-10 yards apart. It isn't often that you see this type of setup, it is mainly used by government agencies and the military. You can be very sure that there are various intrusion detection devices mounted on the fence, buried underground between them, and/or line-of-sight microwave or photoelectric devices used. These will be mentioned later. If you insist on penetrating the perimeter, then you should try to measure how far it is between fences. Now find a 2 foot by X foot board where X is the distance between the 2 fences. Very slowly place the board on top of both fences. If there are no fence vibration sensors you can just climb the fence and step onto the board to walk across the top. If there are fence sensors, you will need a ladder which cannot touch the fence to get you on top of the board. You can then walk on the board, over the ground in between, and jump down, being careful not to disturb the fences. This will work if there are no sensors after the 2 fences. Identi- fying sensors will be mentioned later. Obviously the method of using a long board to put on top of the two fences will not work if the fences are spaced too far apart. Also, you and the board can be seen very easily.

Barbed Wire:

There are two common types of barbed wire in use today. The more common and less secure is the type that is strung horizontally across the fence with three or more rows. The 'barbs' are spaced about 6" apart, enough for you to put your hand in between while climbing over. Also, it is thin enough to be cut very easily. If you think you will need to leave in a hurry or plan on problem free surreptitious entry and the only way out will be to climb over the fence again you can cut the wire from one post to another, assuming the wire is tied or soldered to each post, and replace it with a plastic wire which looks like the wire you just cut. Tie it to each post, and come back anytime after that. You can then climb over it without being cut. The other type of wire, which is more secure or harmful, depending on how you look at it, is a rolled, circular wire commonly called Razor Ribbon. One manufacturer of this is the American Fence Co. which calls it 'the mean stuff'. And it is. The barbs are as sharp as razors. Of course this can be cut, but you will need very long bolt cutters and once you cut it, jump as far back as you can to avoid the wire from springing into your face. As mentioned earlier, cutting is irreparable, and obvious. If the wire is loosely looped, there may be sufficient room in between to get through without getting stitches and losing lots of blood. If the wire is more tightly looped you may be able to cover the the wire with some tough material such as a leather sheet so you can climb over without getting hurt. This method is not easy to accomplish however. You may want to see if you can get under the fence or jump over rather than climb it.

Fence Mounted Noise or Vibration Sensors:

Let's assume you have found a way to get past the fence. Of course you have not tried this yet, since you should always plan before you act. OK, you have planned how you would theoretically get over or past the fence. You are now past the deterrent and prevention stages. Before you put the plan into action you had better check for the things mentioned earlier. If a fence is the first step in security defense, then fence mounted sensors are the second step. The types of detection equipment that can be mounted on the fence are:

Fence shock sensors: These mount on fence posts at intervals of 10 to 20 feet, or on every post. They are small boxes clamped about 2/3 up from ground level. There is a cable, either twisted pair or coax running horizontally across the fence connecting these boxes. The cable can be concealed in conduits or inside the fence itself, thus, making it hard to visually detect. Each fence sensor consists of a seismic shock sensor that detects climbing over, lifting up or cutting through the fence. So if the fence is climbable, it would not be wise to do so since you may be detected. Of course it doesn't matter if your detected if there is no security force to respond and deter you. Another type, is called the E-Flex cable. It's simply a coax cable running horizontally across the fence. This cable can not only be used on chain link fences, but can also be used on concrete block, brick, or other solid barriers. It may be on the outside, or mounted inside the fence, thus, making detection of the device harder. Of course detection of this and other similar devices which cannot be seen, doesn't make it impossible. A way to detect this, is by simply repeatedly hitting the wall with a blunt object or by throwing rocks at it. If nothing out of the ordinary happens, then you can be reasonably sure it is not in place. This is basically a vibration sensor. Low frequency microphones: This is essentially a coax cable that responds to noise transmitted within the fence itself. Vibration sensors: These are based on mercury switches, a ring or ball on a pin, or a ball on a rail. Movement of the fence disturbs the switches and signals alarms. A hint that this is in use is that it can only be used on a securely constructed and tightly mounted fence, with no play or movement in it. Otherwise, they will be getting false alarms like crazy.

Now you know all about these types, how do you get around it? Well, don't touch the fence. But if there is no alternative, and you must climb it, then climb the fence where it makes a 90 degree turn (the corner) or at the gate. Climb it very slowly and carefully, and you should be able to get over without being detected by these sensors! Make sure you climb on the largest pipe and don't fall.

Security Lighting And CCTV:

Sometimes, fences may be backed up by Closed Circuit TV (CCTV) systems to make visual monitoring of the perimeter easier and quicker. By installing an adequate lighting system and conventional CCTV cameras, or by using special low light sensitive cameras, the perimeter can be monitored from a central point. Security personnel can then be dispatched when an intruder is detected on the monitors. Some systems are stationary, and others can be moved to view different areas of the perimeter from within the central station. It would be in your best interest to determine if the camera is stationary or not. If so, you may be able to plan a path which will be out of the view range of the camera. If it is movable, you will have to take your chances. Light control sensor: This utilizes a Passive InfraRed (PIR) sensor to detect the body heat emitted from someone entering the detection area, and can activate a light or other alarm. PIR's will be discussed in Part II of this series. The sensor has an option called: 'night only mode' in which a light will flash when a person enters the area, but only during night hours. It can tell if its dark by either a photoelectric sensor, or by a clock. Of course if its daylight savings time, the clock may not be totally accurate, which can be used to your advantage. If it is photoelectric, you can simply place a flashlight pointing directly into the sensor during daylight hours. When it gets dark, the photoelectric sensor will still 'think' its day since there is sufficient light, thus, not activating the unit to detect alarm conditions. This should enable you to move within the area at will.

Buried Seismic Sensors:

Seismic detectors are designed to identify an intruder by picking up the sound of your footsteps or other noises related to passing through the protected area. These sensors have a range of about 20 feet and are buried underground and linked by a cable, which carries their signals to a processor. There, the signals are amplified and equalized to eliminate frequencies that are unrelated to intruder motion. The signals are converted to pulses that are compared with a standard signal threshold. Each pulse that crosses this threshold is tested on count and frequency. If it meets all the criteria for a footstep, an alarm is triggered. These sensors can even be installed under asphalt or concrete by cutting a trench through the hard surface. It is also immune to weather and can follow any type of terrain. The only restriction is that the area of detection must be free of any type of obstruction such as a tree or a bush.

Electronic Field Sensor:

These detect an intruder by measuring a change in an electric field. The field sensors use a set of two cables, one with holes cut into the cable shielding to allow the electromagnetic field to 'leak' into the surrounding area. The other cable is a receiver to detect the field and any changes in it. Objects passing through the field distort it, triggering an alarm. This sensor can either be buried or free standing, and can follow any type of terrain. But its very sensitive to animals, birds, or wind blown debris, thus, if it is very windy out, and you know this is being used, you can get some paper and throw it so the wind takes it and sets off the alarm repeatedly. If it is done enough, they may temporarily turn it off, or ignore it due to excessive false alarms. It is not hard to tell if these devices are in use. You cannot see them, but you don't have to. Simply get 3-4 medium sized stones. Throw them into the place where you think the protected area is. Repeat this several times. This works on the lesser advanced systems that have trouble distinguishing this type of seismic activity from human walking/running. If nothing happens, you can be reasonably sure this is not in use. Now that you can detect it, how do you defeat it? Well as far as the electronic field sensor is concerned, you should wait for a windy night and cause excessive false alarms and hope they will turn it off. As far as the seismic sensors, you can take it one step at a time, very softly, maybe one step every 30-60 seconds. These sensors have a threshold, say, two or more consecutive footsteps in a 30 second time interval will trigger the alarm. Simply take in one step at a time, slowly, and wait, then take another step, wait, until you reach your destination. These detectors work on the assumption that the intruder has no knowledge of the device, and will walk/run across the protected area normally, thus, causing considerable seismic vibrations. The problem with this method is that it will take you some time to pass through the protected area. This means there is more of a chance that you will be seen. If there are a lot of people going in and out of the facility, you may not want to use this method. Another way would be to run across the protected area, right next to the door, (assuming that is where the response team will come out) and drop a large cat or a dog there. When they come out, they will hopefully blame the alarm on the animal. The sensor shouldn't really pick up a smaller animal, but odds are the security force are contract guards who wouldn't know the capabilities of the device and the blame would fall on the animal and not you, assuming there were no cameras watching...

Microwave Systems:

In an outdoor microwave system, a beam of microwave energy is sent from a transmitter to a receiver in a conical pattern. Unlike indoor microwave detectors, which detect an intruders' movement in the microwave field, the outdoor system reacts to an intruders' presence by detecting the decrease in energy in the beam. The beams can protect an area up to 1500 feet long and 40 feet wide. All transmission is line-of-sight and the area between transmitter and receiver should be kept clear of trees and other objects that can block the beam. Microwave systems can operate in bad weather, and won't signal an alarm due to birds or flying debris. These systems work on the Doppler effect, in which they detect motion that changes the energy, and sets off an alarm. These devices will usually be placed inside a fence to avoid false alarms. These devices are very easy to visually detect. They are posts from 1-2 yards high, about 6 inches by 6 inches and there are 2 of them, one receiver and one transmitter. In some cases there will be more, which enables them to protect a larger area. To defeat this, you can enter the field, very slowly, taking one step at a time but each step should be like you are in slow motion. It doesn't matter how hard you hit the ground, since it doesn't detect seismic activity, only how fast you approach the field. If you take it very slowly you may be able to get past. Detectors of this type get more and more sensitive as you approach the posts. Ergo, choose a path which will lead you furthest away from the posts.

Photoelectric Systems:

These systems rely on an invisible barrier created by beams of infrared light sent from a light source to a receiver. When the beam is interrupted, the alarm sounds. The beam can have an effective range of up to 500 feet. Multiple beams can be used to increase the effectiveness of the system, making it harder for you to climb over or crawl under the beams. Photoelectric systems can be prone to false alarms as a result of birds or wind-blown debris passing through the beam. The problem can be corrected by the installation of a circuit that requires the beam to be broken for a specified amount of time before an alarm is sounded. Weather conditions like heavy fog, can also interrupt the beam and cause an alarm. This can also be corrected by a circuit that reacts to gradual signal loss. These systems should not face directly into the rising or setting sun since this also cuts off the signal beam. As you can see this system has many problems which you can take advantage of to bypass this system. As with any system and method, surveillance of the facility should be accomplished in various weather conditions to help verify the existence of a particular detection device, and to see how they react to false alarms. Many times, you will be able to take advantage of various conditions to accomplish your mission. If there is only one set of devices (transmitter and receiver), try to estimate the distance of the sensors from the ground. You can then either crawl under or jump over the beam. This also works on the assumption that the intruder will not recognize that the device is in use.

Miscellaneous:

Guards: There are two types, in-house or company paid guards and contract guards. Contract guards are less secure since they do not work for the facility and if they make a mistake they simply get transferred to another facility no big deal. In-house guards know the facility better and have more to lose, thus, they are probably more security conscious. Be aware of any paths around the perimeter in which guards can/will walk/ride to visually inspect the exterior of the facility.

Central monitoring: Monitoring of the devices mentioned in this article is usually accomplished at a 'Central Station' within the facility. Usually, guards *SHOULD* be monitoring these. If you have planned well enough, you may find that the guard leaves his/her post to do various things at the same time every night. This would be an ideal time to do anything that may be seen by cameras. Unfortunately, there will probably be more than one guard making this nearly impossible.

Gates: Probably the easiest way to pass through the perimeter is to go through the gate. Whether in a car, or by walking. This may not be too easy if it is guarded, or if there is a card reading device used for entry.

Exterior card readers: For now, if the card used is magnetic (not Weigand) it is quite possible to attack this. If you have an ATM card, Visa, or other magnetic card, slide the card thru, jiggle & wiggle it, etc. and quite possibly the gate will open. Reasons for this are that since it is outside, the reader is subjected to extreme weather conditions day in and day out, thus, the detecting heads may not be in the best of shape, or since it is outside it may be a cheap reader. In either case, it may not work as good as it should and can make 'mistakes' to allow you access.

Combinations: The devices listed in this article do not have to be used alone. They can and are used in conjunction with each other for greater security.

Diversions: In some cases, a diversion could better insure your passage through the perimeter. Keep this in mind.

Extreme weather conditions: All devices have an effective operating range of temperatures. On the low end of the scale, most devices will not operate if it is -30 degrees Fahrenheit or lower. Though, quite a few will not operate effectively under the following temperatures: -13 f, -4 f, +10 f, +32 f. On the other side of the scale, they will not operate in excess of: +120 f, +130 f and +150 f. It is unlikely that the outside temperature will be above 120 degrees, but in many places, it may be below freezing. Take this into consideration if a facility has these devices, and you cannot bypass them any other way.

It was not possible to mention everything used in perimeter protection in this article, although the most common methods were dealt with.

Alarms And Security Keypads

An alarm is the device that keeps a place off limits to persons who do not and should not have access to it. This text will describe how to bypass an alarm or to bypass a security keypad. If the alarm is one of the old fashion type where a loud bell or horn rings to draw attention to the location you are at then you can simply fill the horn or bell with polyurethane foam in a can to silence them. You can purchase this at any hardware store as insulation. It is easy to handle and dries faster. Once the foam is in place the bell or horn will not be able to produce sound and so the security system may still be active, but nothing comes of it. Some high-security installations use keypads just like touch-tone pads (a registered trade mark of bell systems) to open locks or disarm alarms. Most use three or four digits. To figure out the code, wipe the key-pad free from all fingerprints by using a rag soaked in rubbing alcohol. After the keypad has been used just apply finger print dust and all four digits will be marked. Now all you have to do is figure out the order. The best way to figure out the order is to look for some sort of pattern. Following the following examples you should be able to ascertain what the combo is: 7 8 9 4 5 6 1 2 3 * 0 # Usually there will be four different number like 7,5,3,0. If those happened to be the four numbers than the obvious pattern would be 7,5,3,0 because they form a line diagonal. The same hold true for the patters like 9,5,1,0. There is almost always a pattern to the way that the owner of the system has used to make it easier to remember. Two things you have to look out for. The first is that you can only have so many wrong inputs before the system triggers. Also, sometimes even though you may disarm the system, after a certain number of wrong answers a rent-a-cop will come by to make sure everything is OK. The second thing is that after you dust for prints you may only find 3 numbers. However, the combination may be 4 numbers with one repeating. If this is the case, try to look for a digit that has a slightly smudged or shadowed finger print on it. With 4 numbers, each being used once there are 24 different combinations. Follow the example using the numbers 1,2,3,4

1 2 3 4 2 1 3 4 3 1 2 4 4 1 2 3 1 2 4 3 2 1 4 3 3 1 4 2 4 1 3 2 1 3 2 4 2 3 1 4 3 2 1 4 4 2 1 3 1 3 4 2 2 3 4 1 3 2 4 1 4 2 3 1 1 4 2 3 2 4 1 3 3 4 1 2 4 3 1 2 1 4 3 2 2 4 3 1 3 4 2 1 4 3 2 1

However, if there only 3 number in a four pin combination the amount of different combos jumps from 24 to 33. For an explanation follow the example using numbers 0,1,2

0 0 1 2 1 1 0 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 2 0 2 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 2 1 2 1 0 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 1 0 2 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 2 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 2 2 1 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 1 2 2 Many units have a panic button, this can be activated by pressing the * and # keys on the keypad at the same time.

Note: Never try to remove these panels from the wall, as they have built-in tamper switches.

Methods Of Lock Picking

There are two main types of locks used in the nineties. Both of which will be described in the following text. Type one is the combination lock, and type 2 the pad lock.

The Combination Lock.

Identification.

The combination lock is identified by the presence of a number of tumblers, usually four. These are number 0-9. In order to open the lock, each tumbler must be rotated to a specific number, providing a 4-digit code which opens the lock. They come in many forms, the most common being the standard padlock shaped body, and the type used on chains to secure bikes, etc.

Method.

Take the lock in a hand. Starting with the first tumbler (first from the numbers being read left to right) Push the hook part of the lock into the body (push the two halves together if a chain type) and release. Do this a number of times and as you do watch the first tumbler. If it moves, go on to the next number on that tumbler and push and release the hook part as before. If no movement, go on to the next number and so on. However, if the tumbler appears to stick and not move, or move very very little, you have your first number. Then go on to repeat the previous method on the next tumbler and so on until the lok pops open. Each tumbler should 'stick' to the previous if you have the correct number of the code. The only problem occurs if the tumblers are tightly placed together, however, this does not mean that it cant be done, it just takes a little longer.

The Pad Lock

Alot of files on lock picking say that it is not possible to pick a lock in less than a minute. Well it is if you apply this method. I have a demonstration lock that I use to show people how to pick and I can usually do it in under 15 seconds. I find the smaller locks are easier to pick than bigger ones. It is possible and just requires a little practice.

Identification.

The standard padlock is simply made of a square metal body, with a armature over the top and a hole for a key in the bottom.

Method.

This takes only a few days to master. Firtsly you can't really pick these lock if you don't have some knowledge on how they work. All that is required to know is that when you put in the key it moves a number of small pins, or 'sliding doors', into a specific position and thats what enables the lock to open. The first of these can be seen if you look into the key hole. So it stands to reason that all you need to do is move these pins into the required position. This can be done by taken a piece of hacksaw blade that will fit into the key hole, not too small. Place it into the lock with the flat edge aginst the pins and push it up, wiggling it, and turning at the same time. It may take a while at first but once you've mastered it, it can be done extremely quickly. I have also found that this works on some car doors. The best that I've found so far are the Silver mini 25th aniversary special edition, and the Vauxhall caviliers and orions. It also works on lockers and the like. For these lock, I tend to use the fishing net weaver thing on a penknife. Its the piece of metal on the back that looks like an outstrectched diamond shape with a hole in the end.

HIDING YOURSELF

If ever there was a time in this country to make yourself scarce, this must certainly be it. Consider:

(1) we are on the brinks of both an economic catastrophe that makes the Great Depression look like a Sunday picnic and a world war that's going to pale all of our previous wars. (2) Japan, and other foreign countries, are buying up America at such a frenzy - even our National Park concessions and our great institutions -that the prospect of America being turned into one huge post-World War II POW camp is indeed a reality. (3) Credit bureaus have taken snooping to new levels to violate personal privacy and to oppress the people. (4) To make up for all of the money ripped-off by the politicians and their big-shot friends, governments, through their tax collection entities, are becoming increasingly oppressive and dictatorial while taxes soar beyond even what would have been tolerated just a few years ago. (5) Efforts to register and confiscate firearms have reached such a fever pitch that our Founding Fathers must be turning over in their graves. For example, California recently made it a felony not to register an "assault-rifle" - a state that been under continuous Republican domination since Reagan was Governor. In the UK rifles must be declared and liscenced, pistols are banned. Does the government have something so sinister planned that they do not want their very own citezens to have the means to defend themselves? (6) Our basic industries are only a shadow of what they were in the 1950s and 1960s, particularly in the processing of metals. And our system of transportation is shot. The railroads and airlines are dilapidated and failing at ever- increasing rates. Without a massive repair effort in which there is no money for, our interstate highway system will last another decade at most. (7) Virtually every type of financial institution is being ripped-off enmasse by insider fraud and has either collapsed or is on the verge of collapse: S&Ls. banks, credit unions, retirement funds, insurance companies, Wall Street. (8) Politicians have always been corrupt. But in the last decade, this corruption has reached a new level. You know as well as I do that Bush and the government is being paid off by the Japanese, Germans, and Arab Sheiks. None of his four sons are going to die in the desert. Thank you, but they are all doing very well financially, especially Neal. When you got guys like John Glenn selling himself to the highest bidder, you've got to know that there is no peaceful prospect that the system an ever be corrected. (9) We are only a few years from a new millennium. You can bet the old millennium won't end without the rivers running red with blood.

The Soultion

Need I say more? Clearly if you try to live your life like you are a member of the Leave it to Beaver family, you are bound to be screwed bad, and your chances of survival are nill. You'll be taxed to death, your loved ones will be shipped off as cannon fodder, you'll probably lose your job or at least get your retirement and benefits stolen from you, and what little property you have will also be ripped off.

The only solution is to join the underground economy, to travel as light as you can, and to make yourself as scarce as possible. In the final analysis, if they can't find you they can't harm you. We provide much good advice in this direction in our "BY AN ORDER OF THE MAGNITUDE" book. Other excellent sources are available from Loompanics Unlimited, Paladin Press, etc. Of course, virtually any living you make thru the underground economy -even if it's selling rosary beads - is strictly illegal, but that's a judgement you'll have to make.

Many people who own a lot of property and who are well known by a lot of people make some-to-all of their income thru the underground economy. Thus, they are still vulnerable to attack. They still can't fart without an entry being made at a credit bureau. In fact, in some respects, they are in greater danger than people who make identifiable livings, because eventually the tax entities will ferret out the discrepancy between their lifestyles and their identifiable sources of income, and react accordingly.

To be truly safe, you must not only make all or virtually all of your living thru the underground economy, BUT also make yourself as unidentifiable as possible. You can do the later using a combination of means:

(1) Obtain and use alternate identifications. This is discussed fully in many alternate ID manuals, including EDEN PRESS "THE PAPER TRIP", and CONSUMERTRONICS "SECRET & ALTERNATE IDS" and "BY AN ORDER OF THE MAGNITUDE". (2) Travel and live incognito (this information is provided for educational purposes only):

Travel And Live Incongnito

There is a subtle distinction between using an alternate ID and living incognito. "Incognito" means, "To live under a disguise or with your identity concealed," whereas to use an alternate ID means to make yourself known under a different name . The implication is that the incognito person wants as few people as possible to know his name - real or false - or to recognize his appearance. In other words to stay low - even physically hidden. The alternate ID person may have a very high profile, and may do nothing to alter his physical appearance.

I've been told that it is almost impossible these days to live incognito in the United States. I always respond that, 'Then how is it that Los Angeles has about a million more people than anybody knows who they are?' If I were to guess, at l east 10% of the adults living in the United States today are doing so totally incognito, and that at least another 20% purposely maintain a very low profile as a partial form of living incognito. Ironically, we are one country in which a serial killer can go around and kill hundreds of people and no one will have even the faintest idea who he is, but if he bounces a $2 check, that will stay in his credit bureau files for seven years and plague him every aspect of his life!

There are several methods of living incognito, but whatever method you use, pay for things with cash as much as possible, and live with as few possessions as possible.

(1) Travel constantly by whatever means you can devise. (2) Live in an isolated part of the country. For example, Appalacia, the northern most Western states (excluding coastal Washington and Oregon), and the deserts of the Southwest. (3) Live in Mexico and Canada. Or in another country. (4) Live as a near-homeless person and-or as a slightly crazy person. (5) Live in safe houses. (6) Live in hiding places.

Constant Travel:

Many people today who don't want to become identified stay on the road constantly. This not only makes you scarce but can also help you considerably function in the underground economy as a courier or transporter of contraband. it is also an ideal way to live if your type of living will quickly bring attention to you if you start to hang around too long. However, to survive this way, you have to be very physically fit - capable of fighting or fleeing as required - mentally sharp. And very street-wise, as you will be dealing with many strangers, many of whom are predators. You should be able to assume regional accents and understand regional customs, and have an excellent understanding of geography, topography, and meteorology, as well as of the various transportation systems you will encounter. Means of transportation should vary as required and range from thumbing it to flying first class. The fewer times that someone sees your face or hears your name, the less the risk. Biking and walking long distances are a plus. You should know how to drive just about every kind of vehicle, as short stints in a stolen vehicle may result as opportunities arise. Generally, except near the Mexican border, buses are safer than commercial planes - you get far less scrutiny. Near the Mexican Border can be a problem because Immigration officials frequently board and inspect buses. Private planes are the safest per mile traveled.

Live In Isolation:

Remote and isolated parts of this country exist all over. You an even find them relatively near very large cities. However, some parts of our country - Appalacia, the Pacific Northwest and the Southwest have the most such places. Some advantages of living like this:

(a) Your exposure to government and commercial snoops is minimal. (b) It's usually not cost-effective for the government to send someone out to get you unless the wrongdoing is very serious. © If someone does try to make the moves on you, you an usually spot them coming some distance away and will have time to prepare yourself for concealment, flight, or fight. And if you end up having to kill them in self-defense, there will be fewer witnesses and more places to get rid of the evidence.

There are major disadvantages to living in a remote area:

(a) Many people can't tolerate the isolation and boredom. (b) Living conditions are usually primitive. © The chances of dying from a medical emergency are higher.

Live In A Foreign Country:

In many ways, this is the ultimate means of escape. If you are out of reach of our government, they can't mess with you, and won't even try unless you are an international terrorist. There are still nice retirement areas in Mexico and Canada . However, the Mexican situation is getting very much out of hand, and I would tend to steer clear of it. Wherever you live, you will be under the jurisdiction of that country - that sometimes can be worse than living here. However, once you've become established, and you've greased the right palms and made the right friendships, living abroad can of ten become much more safe and secure than living in a typical American city. A great method here is to contact seasoned travelers club members, and say something like, "Well Mildred and I are in the process of planning our retirement. We want a change of scenery. If you were going to retire today to a foreign country , where would you go and why?" If their advice looks good, you might then ask them for the names and addresses of contacts in their suggested area.

Near-Homeless/Crazy Person:

This is probably an ideally safe way to go if you've made a decent score and you need to go underground. Or if you are living on retirement, interest or investment income. Buy a wardrobe at the Salvation Army. Rent a cheap furnished apartment with all utilities supplied. Stash your cash in a bank across town. Rent a mail box in one of those mail drops. Draw on savings as you need it. The only time you need to reveal your identity is when you make a bank transaction, and unless you are receiving checks to your name in the mail, even then it an be done so totally under an alternate ID. Your landlord need never know who you really are. Just be punctual at paying him. You can even avoid contact yourself when you must make those personal contacts with your bank, post office, etc. Simply hire a wino to do those things for you while you remain concealed outside. He doesn't even have to handle any of your cash . Whatever cash you need, you can withdraw from your bank's ATM. If you decide to spend much time on the streets, it helps to appear to be a bit crazy. Not crazy enough to get the police involved, but crazy enough so that people will go out of their way to avoid you. That way, you may be noticed but you will never be recognized as someone actually wanted by anybody.

Live in Safe Houses:

During antebellum days, escaping slaves from the South frequently availed themselves of the "underground railroad" and "safe houses" to escape to the North (even Canada) and to live in freedom. More recently, thousands of draft dodgers and deserters spent the Vietnam war hiding out in safe houses. Today, foreign refugees seeking safety from brutal governments there and economic opportunity here, as well as abused women and children, routinely make use of safe houses to stay hidden. In every war-torn society, whether your talking about World War II Europe or Kuwait after Iraq's Invasion, a reliable safe house an spell the difference between life and death, and people spend years in them. A "safe house" is a home or other building whose occupants are close friends or relatives, or who are sympathetic to your plight, allow you to live with them without becoming known as a member of the house. Especially for women and children, this is the safest way of going. But remember, a safe house is only as safe as its occupants are reliable for keeping secrets. Safe houses an be operated alone or in a network. In the network situation, you stay a short time at one safe house, then move on to another and so forth. That way, you have more freedoms and are less likely to suffer from cabin fever, but by the time your neighbors begin to get overly curious about you, you're gone. Networking is most frequently done with relatives and churches. Safe houses can take other forms. A common form is that of the "shack job." Here you live with someone usually about your age, usually for romantic reasons, while not being married to them. The house, car, etc. are all in their names. You just occupy their home. Shack jobs are so common these days, that almost no one except old biddies will even remark about them. It is an excellent way to hide out while still maintaining a relatively normal life. Another form of safe house is the live-in or domestic servant. This works particularly well in richer neighborhoods and around the Mexican border, where almost anyone with a middle class or above lifestyle has at least one domestic. There are many incapacitated men and women who live alone or semi-alone who would give almost anything to have someone around. Perhaps to nurse them. Or perhaps as just company and a form of security. And if you have some special skills - handy with tools, great at gardening, a super good cook - you can almost write your own ticket. To get on with someone, just refer to the Personals in your newspaper or write your own ad. When the person interviews you and shows some interest in you, you might say something like, "You know, I've given you my true name. When I used to live in LA, there was this person constantly bothering me for money. Just to be sure that he doesn't find me here to bother me again, it is important to me to live with as low of a profile as possible."

Live in Hiding Places:

This is more akin to the horror movie about the mutant twin that lives in the attic then living a "normal" life. Many homes have attics and-or basements that can be easily adapted to hiding a person or people. And other places in a home an be modified to at least temporarily conceal a person. If the home has a crawl space, a trap door can be made so that a person can quickly slide underneath the building for a short period. Another excellent method is to wall over a closet, and then to build-in some secret means of entry. For example, many homes with hallways have hall closets. However it's not unusual to not find a hall closet in a hallway. If you have a hall closet, pull off the door and door frame. Then construct framing and wallboard over it to match with the hall's wall construction. Then paint/panel/paper the entire hall so that all evidence of the hall closet disappears without a trace. An entry to the hall closet can be made from the attic, basement, outside or from the room on the other side. The ideal method is if there is a sink and cabinet on the other side of the hall closet. Install a sliding door at the back of the s ink cabinet that will take you to the hall closet. Sprinkle around a lot of dead roaches, some white powder that looks like it's deadly poison and a few rusty mousetraps. Then slap in an old mop bucket or basket filled with bleach, drain cleaner and other foul containers to conceal the back of the cabinet and to discourage further inspection. Just below the top of the cabinet, you might run a 1/4-inch copper water line into the closet and put a little faucet on it so that the occupant won't get thirsty. Add a stool, a spare bulb, some reading material, some ready-to-eat food, and possibly a floor drain to handle wastes and a person can stay concealed for days if he has to. The floor of the closet might also open up to an escape tunnel to the outside, particularly to the perimeter of the property. For example, it might open up at a hedgerow, beneath a garbage can platform, etc. An escape tunnel is difficult to implement but often well worth the effort for these reasons:

(1) If someone attempts to burn you out of the house, you can slip into the escape tunnel for safety, and then later at night exit the tunnel and escape. (2) If your home is taken from you (ex: the banking big- shots steal it from you), you can return to ive in it, even if other4 people later occupy it.

CARDING

This file is meant to instruct how to order merchandise for free. Otherwise known as the art of carding. The method of carding is invaluble to the assassin as it is a means of acquire the necessary equipment needed for precise operations.

Step 1: Getting Credit Card (CC) Information

Getting CCS is not the easiest thing in the world to do, however, it can be down with some patience. How you want to go about getting them is totally up to you.

Choice A: Trashing

Always been meticulous about your appearance? Don't like to get dirty? Then the primary method of getting credit card information is not going to appeal to you. The best way to get the carbons is by rooting though the dumpster of a store. This process is refereed to as trashing. When a customer buys something at a store or restaurant (with a credit card of course), several carbons are made. The store puts these into their files, and throws them away a week or so later. The best place to trash depends on the time of year in which you are looking for carbons. For instance, during the Christmas season: toy stores. During major temperature changes: clothing stores, etc. Basically go wherever there is the largest buying attraction during that period of time. Whenever there is no major buying attraction, try independent clothing stores or department stores.

Tips for Trashing:

1. Go on the first day of the month. (In alot of stores this is the 'clear the files day.")

2. Go to the mall. That way if one trash can is empty, you have a hundred or so more.

3. Stay away from food stores. Putting your hand into last weeks friend chicken is too high a price for a lousy credit card.

4. For convenience, look for florists, video stores, and the like. Video stores especially, since every transaction they make involves a credit card. Florists because the worst thing in their dumpsters is usually sweet smelling flowers. Other places to hit are: Travel Agencies, Hallmarks, Record Shops, places which don't have much other garbage. Shoes stores never have a lot of other garage. Also try stores like FIM or Hardware stores. Usually you can find their carbons with little ease, and often times find other goodies in the dumpsters. If you goto insurance places or car dealerships this can land you computer printouts with TRW and CBI information and account numbers on it, which are very valuable to an experienced hacker. Look out for half- carbons. They are carbon paper that have perforated edges down them so they can easily be ripped in half and discarded. What most places do is to throw one side into one can, and the other side in another. So take both bags and put them together at night.

5. The best time to trash is at night.

It would be very handy to have a small, compact flashlight that you can use to go though the dumpster instead of feeling around etc. If you see someone keep low in the trash. I have found myself in trashcans many times, and when I get caught in there I go "Uhh, have you seen my baseball?" They'll usually take you for stupid. Or act like a bum...that will work.

Clothes:

I suggest that you were some really grubby, old, etc. clothing when you go trashing, because you never know what some of these stores are gonna throw away. If you are kind of squeamish, wear rubber gloves and those pant covers that framers- use. I am not sure what they are called, but there're made of rubber and will keep the nasties away from you when you go trashing

Choice B: Phone Scamming

Trashing not for you eh?? Well, don't worry there are more ways to skin a cat (and to obtain a CC number.

Number 1: Visa Security

Call someone up and say: "Hello, this is Visa security and we have a report that your card was stolen."

They will deny it and you will try to get it out of them from that point on. You could say. "It wasn't stolen? Well, what is the expiration date and maybe we can fix the problem. "OK and what is the number your card? Thank you very much and have a nice day." Or something to that degree.

Number 2: Stupid Housewives

This is so easy. You go though someone's garbage (or recycling bin) and look for bank info and stuff like that. Anything that will have the name of their bank on it. The next day stake off school or work: whatever and give the house a call. Make sure you get a house where the man goes to work and the wife stays home and cooks and cleans: Like a real woman (very sexist, eh?) Call up and do this:

Y=You H=Her

Ring....Ring H= Hello? Y= Hello there. This is Marty Finklestein from 1st National Buttle Trust (The real banks name) Is this Mrs. Abe Dicknose? H= Yes? Y= Sorry to bother you. We have had a mix-up in our computer records, it seems that your credit file has been accidentally wiped out. H= Oh my! Is it serious? Y= Not really. We need some help from you though. We have lost your current card information. If you could please help to make this easier you could either stop by the bank today or tomorrow or you could give me your current credit card information on the phone. Whichever you prefer. (If they want to stop by the bank, just set up a fake appointment and hang up. They will, in most cases be too busy to stop by and give you the info right on the phone) This method has worked many times before. Try it out, it's a very easy and simple way to do it.

Number 3: Just the same as before: call them up and say: Victim: Hello? You: This is the First national Security and Trust Loan Bank (their real bank) WE are calling you to notify you credit limit has been raised to one thousand dollars. Victim: But...but... My limit used to be $100,000 dollars! There must be some mistake. You: No, I'm afraid not. Unless....well... there might have been a mistake in our computer. Do you have your number hand? I'll run a check on the number Victim: I'll go get it.

Then these people will read off their CC information to you on the phone. How nice of them. Make is sound formal, take the number down, ask for read-back confirmation. Be courteous and thank them for their time. In fact a return call to tell them everything is all right will stop them from calling the bank in a few days and checking on their card.

Tips for Phone Scamming:

Use a pay phone or beige box the call. If you can't do that at least *67 the call to block out the caller id. However; this is become dangerous with the new *69 call back and the logging of outbound calls. Best bet is still a pay phone. Once you get 1 CC you don't have to pay for anymore calls.

Choice C: Inside Connections

Friend who work in stores that take a lot of cards in. They can usually hold on the them and give them to you. (Gee, what a nice new zip drive that is!) If nothing else get (oh God I cannot believe I am about to say this) a job yourself where you will be taking down a lot of CCS. Shoe stores are the best. Choice D: Casing for Cards Go looking for open cars or houses. Search for PLASTIC, yes, the actual plastic card. It will usually take the owner 24-48 hours to notice it is missing. Even longer. If you can: write down their drivers license info.

Choice E: Mail Boxing As you know (or should know) the people receive their new cards in the mail. If you happen to have a round on the way home from school where someone is gone during the day and doesn't get home until after you do every day. Simply check their mail box every day on the way home. This will work better if you mail box is right next to the guys' your going to get it from. When it arrives, simply take it, write your signature for that person on the back

OR:

If you know a lot about the person, get a CC application form and order a new card for them. Just give them a eternal ring number or loop for the phone number. That way you know there will be a CC coming in the mail. Just hope it doesn't come on Saturday. If that is a possibility, wait for the mail and grab your mail and their mail for them and walk it up to the door for them.

Tips on Getting CCs:

You could use a CC off a BBS but this is generally not a good idea since most cards up there have about $1000 worth of porno tapes on them. Better yet you could ask a friend. This may work, but sometimes people give out cards they have used up or have fucked up with. Oh the death of a friendship

Step 2: The Drop Spot

The address: More commonly refereed to as the "drop" This is where the merchandise is going to be going after it has been ordered. The drop can range from an abandoned building to your next door neighbors apartment. Before you order your merchandise, you must figure out a place to send the merchandise. You do NOT want the strop from which you shop, the card hold, or the CC company to know where you really live.

Choice A: Houses In order for a house to qualify as an inconspicuous drop spot, it must meet several requirement. It must look like a place where people could really live and be getting things sent though UPS to them. It must be a place that the owners will not "visit" too regularly. IT may have a "For Sale" sign in front of it, but it is better it doesn't Most important of all, it must be place where you can check up on often

Tips for Houses:

Leave a note on the door saying "Hello UPS, I worked days, 8 to 6 Please leave all packages for NAME on the porch. Thanks, alot NAME" (Make the signature halfway convincing) When sending a package to a vacant house, always walk by it first and check to see if anyone is watching. Then if you think that the coast is clear, then go it. If anyone is watching (like the police or FBI) then by all means Don't Run! This is a mistake many have made. Just Casually walk on down the street, and never go by there again

Finding Houses:

You can find dozens of houses from a real estate agent by telling them you (or your parents) want to look around for the area for house. Ask for list of twenty or so houses for sale, and tell them you will check out the area. Do so, until you find a drop that will suit your needs.

Choice B: Apartments

If you plan to send to an apartment then be sure NOT to include an apartment number. This will confuse UPS or postage men a little and they will leave the package in the lobby

Choice C: Occupied House

Also, you can send an order to an occupied house. Send the owners of the house a note by mail telling them about a "computer glitch that sent some of our merchandise to your address. We will send a sales representative or a delivery boy to come and pick it up." Spice this up a bit, but apologizing for any hassles and giving a fake name for the "sales representative." Then, when you go, just give them a little not authoring you to be there. When you pick up the package be calm. Talk to the people no longer than necessary, but don't run away or anything. Wear a hat, but don't wear a ski mask and sunglasses. Look normal, yet try and conceal as much of your looks as possible. If you do this right, you will look like a normal person, and the people will forget about you in the month or so it takes the credit agency to so anything about the fraud.

NOTE: Please, on this on this option no idiots please. This new group of people that read this file send this shit to a cops house. One cop busted a 5 man team. Oh well! Death to the Lamerz

Qualifications for the Drop:

The pick up is one of the most crucial parts of the entire plan. Here is what I think the ultimate drop should be:

1. Abandoned 2. Isolated (No little old ladies calling the police or spraying you with hoses) 3. About a mile from your house

Number one could be a friend of yours who will sign for the pack and then when the feds come deny it ever arrived. This is unlikely Number two is obvious. I have been yelled at by numbers old people and people that don't speak English. Not fun! The mile away from your house is obvious. You don't want people that know you to be witnesses

Tips for Drops

There are services that hold merchandise for you, but personally I would not trust them. Forget about PO Boxes. You need an ID to get it and most places won't ship to them. Also, when you have determined a drop site, keep an eye on it for suspicious characters and cars that have not been there before. NEVER use a drop more than once.

For a drop site, you can try to get fancy if need be. I have heard of empty military huts being used as well as empty condos, empty houses whose owners are on vacation, and about a zillion other stories. If you think you have come across something new, think a plan up, think it over, and think it over again. Make sure you have every step down so when you order, pick up, and make your escape, there are no problems. Think about it: what harm does it do to spend an hour making sure you didn't overlook something. It is a lot better than going there and getting caught.

Step 3: Ordering

The best place to order from is catalogs (although some people think local business is better) and mail order houses. It is in your best interest to place the call from a pay phone, especially if it is a 1-800 number. Now when you call don't try to disguise your voice thinking you'll trick the salesperson into believing you are an adult. These folks are trained to detect this, so your best bet is to order in your own voice. They will ask for the following: Name, name as it appears on card, phone number, billing address, expiration date, method of shipment, and product. Ask if they offer UPS red shipping (next day arrival) because it gives them less time to research and order. If you are using American Express, you might have a bit of a problem shipping to an address other than the billing address. If AMEX is the only thing you can get and you are familiar with the people. Try passing out flyers with massive amount of boxes of them. Then make the switch after the UPS guy has been there. If nothing else just order a lot of shit to there house.

Tips on Ordering:

If you place an order to a big company from their catalog they will ask for the catalog number. On the back of the catalog above the address there is a 6-8 digit number that has the info about the person they sent the catalog to. If you received the catalog in the mail, this is not only foolish: it can result in a terrible situation. All they have to do is track down the owner of the catalog and nail them. Do not ever give them your catalog number. Tell them you picked up the catalog in the doctors office and their is no number (they still believe in kissing customer ass) OR you could give them the catalog number of a mortal enemy. This has double fun bonus.

If the salesperson ask question, do not hang up. Talk your way out of the situation, so you won't encourage investigation on the order. A good general way to avoid hassles is to stick with little businesses who need your money, you'll do fine.

Final Tips:

Remember: Greed Kills. There are no old carders, get want you want and then quit. Also do not try to card anything over $500 because this will almost always require a signature from UPS. Over $500 is OK if it is sent Postal, but this will always take forever and they might nail your ass on the phony order before it gets there. Also over $200 is grand theft as well as credit fraud. Get caught doing this and you will bite it for a few years Also, don't display your special talent at school, parties, or social events. Not even to your best friends. ESPECIALLY not to your best friends. They are the ones most likely to brag about you and spread the word. This is the farthest thing from what you want. Keep it to yourself, and if you must tell someone about it, either call Phone Sex, a Bridge, or an Alaskan Operator. Those are your only choices, as no other carder or phreak wants to hear about how good you actually are.

TIPS

Here follows a list of points that could not really be fitted in anywhere else, the assassin should always be aware of these and they should be studied in detail.

*In the dark, do not look directly at the object you wish to see. Cast the view slightly to the side and the object will become alot clearer.

*If confronted by a bright light in dark conditions, close one eye to sustain the night vision.

*When leaving a room, you own, that contains sensitive information. Moisten a long hair with the tongue and place across the door to the frame. If the hair becomes unstuck the chances are that someone has entered the room. Ensure that the hair is place at a low level, or in a position that the eye will not notice.

*If you are wearing a wolly hat, do not cover the ears, if neccesary only cover the tops but keep the most part of you ear uncovered otherwise you will not be able to hear as well.

*If questioned about anything regarding you private work, lie cautiously.

*Do not attract attention. If in an area of buisness - dress buisness-like, if in 'punk' area -dress punk.

*When engaged in telecommunications, if the slightest supicion of tracing is felt drop the line. When speaking to the authorities keep conversations to about 30 secs, preferably less.ALWAYS call from a payphone.

*During any operation, sacrifices may be needed to be made in order to achieve the final result. The assassin should be able to have the ability to make the right decisions.

*Smoke bombs can be extremly effective in aiding an escape.

*When closing a pen knife - the fingers should not be in the way of the blade. Move the ends of the fingers down the 'finger' side of the knife, thumb down thumb side, and close. Alternativly you can use the previous method and close the blade in on the upper thigh. This will leave one hand free incase of an attack or situation.

*Know the different sounds of the city. Its no good to begin an escape at the sound of a siren. It may be an ambulance not the police. The police will also use helicopters. Know the difference between helicopters and planes.

*To aid in predicting the arrival of an enemy when on the run, break the light bulb outside the door with a jacket and shoe, for example, the crunching of the glass will inform you of approaching personel. The appropriate action can then be taken.

*In any situation, from combat to active manouvers, always keep the legs bent. In combat this will stop the enemy from breaking them. In active manouvers, it will cause you to move lighter on your feet and with less noise, also bent legs will give smoother movements and spring if needed.

*When jumping up and off things, greatly exaggerate the absorbtion in the legs. This way you will be able to move extremely silently without any noise.

*Everyone has a pressure point of some sort. You find something that is personally important to them and squeeze.

*Dealing directly with an enemy is by no means always the best way. Look for things that are close to them and attack.

*To fear death is worse than death itself.

*When out in society notice everything. Look in the background. This way you can define what people notice and what they pass by, and therefore can use this to your advantage. Practice can be achieved by looking in films. Look in mirrors and reflections for the cameraman. Out windows for crew and so on. This will aid in watching your own back. you will find that you begin to naturally use reflections to see what or who is behind you, therefore not looking as suspicious. When checking any suspicions, as well as using reflective surfaces such as windows and glasses. You can also see the reflection in peoples eyes and eliminate the problem before it arises.

*Be wary of anyone and everyone

*Use easy to access equipment, in eay to access areas.

*When walking through a 'real' enviroment, never clench the fists in the pockets. They will be slower to access in the event of a situation arising. Instead keep the hand open, this way you will be able to pull them out quicker.

*Check vehicles for extra wiring, especially around the ignition. There could be a destructive device on board.

*Aways pay in cash.

*When socialising do not drink enough to cause any loss of control or slowed reactions. Fake it if neccessary.

*Never discuss sensitive information over the phone lines. Preferably do not verbally discuss. Use paper and pen and burn all evidence after.

TRAINING REGIME

It will be necessary for anyone contemplating the way of the warrior to be at a high fitness level. This following guide will include, fitness, martial arts and weapons training, as well as methods on endurance, speed and skill. The following text will give an idea of what to train in. The ideal training schedule would involve the use of a forested hill of reasonable size, and a few spare hours.be something as follows:

Warm Up/Conditioning

Run up hill approximately 1.5 miles

Once at a preselected point, that contains logs, trees, and a clear space. Proceed as follows:

Sit ups normal 40 Sit ups with hands moving to touch the bootom of the knees 30 Sit ups with the hands to the top of the knees 30 Sit ups inverted 15 Press ups normal 20 Press ups with hands wide 20 Press ups with fingers pointing in 15 Press ups with the hands close together 15 Squats 30 Hang on bar/branch and raise the legs horizontal. 10 Chin ups palms facing away 10 Chin ups palms away with hands wide 10

Stretches

Head circles 3 Swinging arms forwards/backwards 10 Rotating hips clockwies then anti-. 10 Knee bends 20 Feet together and touch the floor with the hands 4 Standing legs wide apart reach left/right/middle 30 secs each Sitting legs apart reach left/right/middle 30 secs each Tuck jumps 10 Swing leg straight up infront 10 each Swing leg out to the side 10 each

Body Conditioning

Hang on bar as a partner practices punching, lightly at first and become more firm over a period of time, you practice taking pain and toning abs. Then switch. Do about 20-30 blows with the hands and elbows and 10-20 with the legs and knees. You and your partner exchange blows - kicks and punches, lightly and incease the force after time. Such as one for one sparring, looking for spaces and opportunities.

Martial Arts

Find a large log, about 7-8 foot long and fairly wide. Dig a whole deep enough for the log to stand in and protrude about 6ft. (Alter to your own height) Wrap some rope around the log at the head point, body point and leg points. Practice 2 mins solid of none stop unarmed combat. Increase the time over a period. Using boots will lightly load the legs and help to increase speed. Kicking with boots must come to a stopping point. Perform each kick on both legs aiming to get each one precise.

Jabs 10each... Reverse punch Hooks 10 Upper cuts (away from log) 10

Front kick 10 Roundhouse/turning kick 10 Side kicks 10 Back fist 10 Palm heel 10 Ridge hand 10

Back kick 5 Double roundhouse/turning kicks 10

Hooking elbow strike 10 Rising elbow strike (away from log) 10

Knee rising off the front leg 5 Knee rising off the back leg 5 Knee round off front (as turning kick but don't extend leg) 5 Knee round off back 5

Blocks

Swinging logs on the end off ropes can be affective way to train with blocks. Alternatively you could use a partner. Also train to block weapons with the arms. Attack them straight on or redirect the attack.

As a partner fires a variety of attacks practice:

Low sections 10 Knee block 10 Head block 10 Full body block 10 Body blocks -

*As a partner fires a number of punches and kicks you choose the most suitable block, using a variety. Start off slow increasing speed over a peroid of time. This will improve your reaction time and reflexes. Do 20-30 Reps. each.

*Block/evasion counter

Leading leg outer evasion covering head low hook outer arm, high hook outer arm, Upper cut (varying between chin and diagpham) inner arm. 5each side

Straight drop, inner arm hook, outer arm hook, inner uppercut 5each side Practice each block countering with a jab or reverse 5/7

Practice weapons tactics on the 'dummy', using items such as the jo, eskrima sticks, knife etc. All of which can be improvised. When using the dummy, mark the vital spots and try and aim for them. Remember, it is not always best to constantly aim for the head. The rest of the body has their own weak points as well. Move around, don't stay in one place. Duck and weave, in a real situation you would not stand still, you would move around and look for openings.

15-30 minutes for relaxation/meditation.

Cross the legs crossed, breath deeply and empty the mind. Picture a peaceful scene such as being on a palm treed beach in the sun set with a lover. The wind gently blowing their hair over your face.etc. However, you must not picture sexual acts etc. Remain calm and relaxed. Feel the bad energy and heat leave the body. If you practice this you will begin to find that you will block swiftly and instinctively and your attacks will become more smooth and controlled. It is good to perform this in the middle of a wood, as this is usually a very calm and quiet place.

The above workout is the ideal basic one. It is not complex or anything because the techniques described only cover an extremly small amount of combat methods. This training should be practiced at least once a week. If you live in a city, things can be improvised. A good place to train is to run up a hill as before, then run to the top of a tall building and train on the roof. The rope for the dummy can be wrapped around an air duct or something similar. I believe the meditation or elaxation is important, as it makes you function alot swifter, faster and with more accuracy. It also opens your mind and allows you to feel things more, ie, people approaching.

High Intensity Endurance Training

High intensity endurance training means training so that you can work at near flat out performance for a long period of time. Many fights last only minutes. A good level to aim for is say 3 minutes. Work against the dummy or a bag and perform the moves as hard and continuesly as possible. Aim for about 30 seconds to start with moving onto 3 minutes after time. After the 30minutes is up, continue to strike the target but reduce the power and speed right down. After say another 30 seconds or one minute speed it all back up again. Continue practicing this, increasing the work time and decreasing the 'rest' time until the full period is reached without stopping. Repeat this cycle about three or four times, with 'rest' periods in between. The main point that is to be emphasised is that you must work flat out for the desired time.

Speed Training

Speed training means to move the limbs at maximum velocity. But be careful to not damage your joints. Warm up thoroughly before speed training. Wrist and ankle weights are very good for speed training because they slightly load the limbs but do not produce unwanted technique modifications. Another very good way of speed training is to practice in waist deep water. Improve whole body speed by running in waist deep water, or sprint up steep hills or sand dunes. Whatever you choose be sure to practice it at full speed. Improve your reaction time by having a partner use a target mit. They hold this face down against the thigh and then lefts it for you to strike. Depending where they lift it to and the angle of the pad, depends on the technique you use.

Skill Training

Skill training occurs when the body is rested and fit. By training in such a physical condition, your nerves and muscles can strive for and achieve correct co-ordination and form. Practice all the techniques, aiming to get each one exactly right. And always stop when you begin to feel tired. Without the pressure of 'just one more', you can consentrate on the fine points of skill. A large full length mirror is a great aid to ensure that you are performing the techniques correctly.

APPENDIX I

Chemical Equivalency list

Acacia............................................................................................Gum Arabic Acetic Acid...................................................................................Vinegar Aluminum Oxide...........................................................................Alumia Aluminum Potassium Sulphate..................................................Alum Aluminum Sulfate.........................................................................Alum Ammonium Carbonate.................................................................Hartshorn Ammonium Hydroxide.................................................................Ammonia Ammonium Nitrate........................................................................Salt Peter Ammonium Oleate........................................................................Ammonia Soap Amylacetate...................................................................................Bananna Oil Barium Sulfide................................................................................Black Ash Carbon Carbinate..........................................................................Chalk Carbontetrachloride......................................................................Cleaning Fluid Calcium Hypochloride..................................................................Bleaching Powder Calcium Oxide................................................................................Lime Calcium Sulfate..............................................................................Plaster of Paris Carbonic Acid...............................................................................Seltzer Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide..............................................Ammonium Salt Ethylinedichloride........................................................................Dutch Fluid Ferric Oxide....................................................................................Iron Rust Furfuraldehyde.............................................................................Bran Oil Glucose..........................................................................................Corn Syrup Graphite..........................................................................................Pencil Lead Hydrochloric Acid........................................................................Muriatic Acid Hydrogen Peroxide.......................................................................Peroxide Lead Acetate.................................................................................Sugar of Lead Lead Tero-oxide............................................................................Red Lead Magnesium Silicate......................................................................Talc Magnesium Sulfate.......................................................................Epsom Salt Methylsalicylate...........................................................................Winter Green Oil Naphthalene...................................................................................Mothballs Phenol.............................................................................................Carbolic Acid Potassium Bicarbonate.................................................................Cream of Tarter Potassium Chromium Sulfate.......................................................Chromealum Potassium Nitrate..........................................................................Salt Peter Sodium Oxide.................................................................................Sand Sodium Bicarbonate.....................................................................Baking Soda Sodium Borate...............................................................................Borax Sodium Carbonate........................................................................Washing Soda Sodium Chloride............................................................................Salt Sodium Hydroxide.........................................................................Lye Sodium Silicate..............................................................................Glass Sodium Sulfate...............................................................................Glauber's Salt Sodium Thiosulfate.......................................................................Photographer's Hypo Sulfuric Acid..................................................................................Battery Acid Sucrose...........................................................................................Cane Sugar Zinc Chloride.................................................................................Tinner's Fluid Zinc Sulfate...................................................................................White Vitriol

APPENDIX II

Closing Statement

Throughout my teens I have noticed that people fear what they do not understand more than I ever imagined. People are constantly avoiding me because of my 'weirdness' or 'twisted' nature. My suggestions, however typical and rational they are, are often dismissed with the phrase, ' well you're just fucking tapped/twisted/fucked up". Neither of which can be applied to me. I simply have an open mind and am not afraid to accept that we are not safe, not anywhere. People dispise me and my thoughts simply because they are too scared to accept that they, too, are vunerable. They prefer to sweep it all under the carpet and indisputably dismiss any evidence to the contrary. We are not safe. Not only from the goverment but from each other, ourselves and things 'out' there. People will begin to deny what I am starting to say, if they have'nt already. I truely believe that the threats on our planet are not the only threats that we must prepare for. There are species and civilizations out there apart from our own. This cannot be denied. Skeptics say that the chances for one life form evolving off our planet are so incredible that it cannot be true. But take a look around. How many times has that theory be disproven here? There are billions of different species on our own planet, and they say not even one species could exist anywhere else. We do not even know what is at the bottom of the oceans, - how can we even begin to say what is'nt out there. There has been proof of this for millions of years, simply research will prove this. What is to say they are hostile? Go outside and approach a snake, bear, swan. Even our own pets can turn on us without even the slightest bit of conscience. So an evolved species is not going to be aggressive to something it has never seen before? Our own species is constantly in hostile situations with each other, the first instinct when approached by something that has never been seen before is to kill. 'Where's the proof?' or 'If they have been here why hasn't anyone took a picture of them?' 'why don't they show themselves if they are here?' these are all questions which people ask. Well there are photo's, there is proof, the government does know things, and would you show yourself to an alien species that you know are hostile, curious, and violent. Would you show yourself to a species that cuts and slicing open organisms just to know what it does and how it works?. These people ask these questions because they are scared. They do not want to accept that there is life other than ours. Anyway enough on extraterrestrials. Why are camera's put all over the cities and areas in which we live? To protect us, for our own safety. So you're in the street and start to get attacked by a gang of blokes with knives, guns, bars and the like. But don't worry, you are safe the cameras are there. The cameras will stop you from being beaten to death, put in hospital if you're lucky. No, they just watch. Just sit there and watch. You're dying and they just watch. The cameras aren't there for any other purpose than to monitor and control society. I was once taught in a psychology lesson that we conform. Examples were: We conform by sitting on chairs, we conform by driving on the right side of the road, we conform by wearing clothes. But is'nt conformity when we want to be excepted into society? when we want to be liked? a choice we make ourselves? If we do not 'conform' we are punished. Therefore this is not conformity, its just another method of control. The government in the UK have recently banned hand guns, and rifles need a liscence. Why? there must be a reason. What are they planning to do that they don't want there own people to be able to defend themselves?

This is why we must learn as much as possible, in order to survive. APPENDIX III

Thanx And Dedications

This manual is to be dedicated to the woman I love more than anything else:

Morgan Schoffield

She has accepted me for who I am, my strange, maybe twisted, nature, not the way I look, and appear to others. References of her can be found such as the number 667426 - morgan on the telephone keypad, in other filez and designs of weapons (such as the PRL MOD.667426 - portable rocket launcher and the AP667426)

Firstly I would like to thank everyone who has made it possible for me to have access to the net, the net creators, administrators and everyone else. Without access to the net I would still be the lone gunman learning everything from nothing myself without any communications or knowledge of like minded people. The net has given me access to information that has proved very valuble to my research and operations. I would also like to thank my parents and my up-bringing. Being subjected to a military enviroment from the moment of birth and the influence this has had on my approach to life. I would also like to thank that strange motive that we all get from a very early age that notifies us that society is not what it appears to be and giving us the curiosity and confidence to stand up and become unique. I would like to thank Redphaze for introducing me into his community and becoming part of ' The Family ' of undergrounders. His interest and confidence in me has made me feel that I am no longer a drifter but have found where I belong.

APPENDIX IV

Apoligies

I would like to apoligies for the very formal way that this manual has been written and for any offences taken during reading this. I would also like to apoligise for the constant change in manner and the fact that some parts of the file are specifically based around country type enviroments. If you want more information specifically for your area, mail me and I'll see what I can do. I'm also going to apologise for any spelling errors, but I coundn't convert it to another program to run a fucking spell checker.

APPENDIX V

About The Author

I was born in a military establishment in 198*and grew up with a military influence all my life. My father, being an active soldier, was the main influence and the reason why I have always been situated near a military base, ranging from a small RAF base abroad to the SAS headquaters I now know. In fact I can see it out of my bedroom window. I have, being an active paramilitary soldier as part of a special recconaissnece unit, experience in all of the weapons described and alot of experience in many of the other titles. I have been interested in the martial arts ever since I was about four. Not participating in any clubs until the age of fourteen. From then until the present, I have experience and skills in Karate, Kick Boxing and Taekwondo. I'm hoping to learn the skills of Aikido and Ninjitsu in the near future. My main influences are probably Jackie Chan for his superior skills in speed, skill and improvisation. In 'First Strike' he uses a step ladder to fight of multiple enemys, flipping it swinging it and all that. I also find that Van Damme, for his powerful moves, and Steven Seagal, for his close combat techniques, are also influences. I also have an advanced level in Psychology, and I study telepathy, remote viewing, meditation, lucid dreaming, etc etc. I've revolted against authourity since I can remember, shoplifting at the age of four and getting caught by my mother. Since then I have took a more stragical approach to situations, I like to use my mind, and apply military precision to my operations. I have a very open mind and have studied alot of alternative and unorthadox methods and sciences. Anway, I'm now on a quest to become a legendary hacker, I'm stubborn and determined and I will get there eventually. Any help would be gratefully accepted. Well thats about it about me. If you want to write a profile or anything and send it I would like to learn about other peoples experiences and determine for sure whether we are born this way from birth and not average people who just happen to become interested.

APPENDIX VI

Further Research

I suggest that if you want to further your knowledge more, you should read the books listed below and other books on the subject. Also, watch movies on such subjects, such as:

Leon Assassin Assassins Steven Seagal Movies Jackie Chan Movies, the latest 'rumble in the bronx' and 'first strike', are highly recommended. Surviving the Game The Jackal Blade Any other action, terrorist films.

Books:

Information Warfare -Winn Schwatau Commando fighting Techniques -Jim Wilson & Paul Evans Secrets Of The Ninja -Ashida Kim The SAS Survival Handbook -John Wiseman

Other books on military techniques, sleight of hand magic tricks, medicine, information, telecommunications, etc, etc. Also there are many e-mags out on the net one of the best would probably have to be Anti-Social, which can be found at http://www.antisocial.cjb.net or more information can be found by mailing the editor Geddon at Khorne@compuserve.com , you may even find some of my work on occasions published. If that doesnt work for you, try their IRC channel on undernet #as-mag

You should also search the internet for anything and everything. I also highly suggest becoming a member of a martial arts organisation or a few. That's about it, just open your mind.

Recommended Music:

Open your mind (M.U.T.E mix) -U.S.U.R.A The Age Of Love -Scooter (samples terminator theme) Cold Water Canyon -Scooter Zebrasa Crossing the Street -Scooter The First Time -Scooter Scooter Del Mar -Scooter Back In The UK -Scooter The Age Of Love (original mix) -The Age Of Love Mysterious Times (feat. Tina Cousins) -SASH! Children -Robert Miles Any Lucid Tracks -Lucid Strings for Yasmin -Tin Tin Out The Unforgiven II -Metallica Tourniquet -Marylin Manson Various songs -2pac The X Files Theme (terrestrial mix) -Mark Snow Anything thats Atmospheric Trance

REFERENCES

Introduction -The Propagation Psychology -The Propagation Multiple ID's and personalities -The Propagation & The Walking Glitch Concealment -The Propagation, courtesy of Hand to hand combat -The Propagation, Exodus, The Jolly Roger, Red Phaze, Fei Long Martial arts -The Propagation Commando fighting techniques -The Propagation, courtesy of Gun use -The Propagation, courtesy of Special ammo -The Jolly Roger Basic weapons skills -The Propagation Sentry removal -The Propagation, courtsey of Attacking from ambush -The Propagation, courtesy of Capture in passing -The Propagation, courtesy of Lying methodology -The Propagation Lie detector tests -Redphaze & Arcum Daggson The art of escaping -The Propagation, courtesy of Explosives technics -Bill Nelson, Paul Miller -The Propagation, The Jolly Roger Poisons -The Propagation, Armagedon, The Jolly Roger, and Vortex Communications -The Propagation, The Jolly Roger, Unknown Intelligence gathering -The Propagation & Dark Creaper Phone taps -The Jolly Roger Survival kits -The Propagation, courtesy of Movement -The Propagation, courtesy of Tracking -The Propagation Advancing towards the enemy -The Propagation, courtesy of Navigation -The Propagation, courtesy of Reading the signs -The Propagation, courtesy of Hot wiring -The Jolly Roger Slight of hand -The Propagation, courtesy of Security systems -Lex Luthor-lod 1.3, Redphaze, Ranger Rocket Lock picking -The Propagation Hiding youself -John J. Williams, consumertronics Carding -Exodus, The Jolly Roger, Red Phaze, & Sneaky Thief Tips -The Propagation Physical training regime -The Propagation APPENDIX I: Chemical equivelency lists -The Jolly Roger APPENDIX II: Closing statement -The Propagation APPENDIX III: Thanx and dedications -The Propagation APPENDIX IV: About the author -The Propagation APPENDIX V:Further research -The Propagation References -The Propagation Disclaimer -The Propagation

-Note: Courtesy of, refers to information from a book studied.

Book References-

The SAS survival handbook -John Wiseman Commando fighting techniques -Jim Wilson and Paul Evans Taekwondo in a week -David Mitchell Secrets of the ninja -Ashida Kim The healing power of hypnotism -Caroline and David Shreeve Magic Tricks -John Wade

File References-

The 5.56mm rifle -Classified Basic Battle Skills -Classified

"The way that can be told is not the eternal way, ...it cannot be experienced or defined, it can only be experienced"

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